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Glossary of Medical Terms

H

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
h
Hour
HA
Hepatic Artery, Hepatitis A, Hyperalimentation
HAA
Hepatitis Associated Antigen
HAAA
Hepatitis-associated aplastic anemia
Haemagglutination-Inhibition
An assay used for certain types of viruses which are able to agglutinate red blood cells. Haemagglutination-inhibition records blocking
Half-Life
The time required for half the amount of a drug to be eliminated from the body
HAP
High Amplitude Peristalsis
H&P
History & Physical
Harris' Band
Anomalous peritoneal folds which extend from the gallbladder to the inferior surface of the liver to the proximal duodenum, sometimes traversing the mesocolon near the hepatic flexure
HAV
Hepatitis A Virus
Hawthorne Berry
Crataegus Laevigata. Also known as Mayblossom and Whitehorn. Apparently causes a direct dilation of the smooth muscles of the coronary vessels which lowers their resistance and increasing blood flow. Said to have a direct, favorable effect on the heart as well as increase nerve conductivity. Used as a mild astringent for treating sore throats, as well as treating hypertension, nervous disorders and insomnia
Hazardous Material
Substances that are dangerous. i.e. Things that have come into contact with the hepatitis C virus through use, such as needles, syringes, alcohol swabs, bandaids
Hb
Hemoglobin
HB
Hepatitis B
HBc
Hepatitis B Core (antigen)
HBe
Hepatitis B e Surface (antigen)
HBF
Hepatic Blood Flow
HBs
Hepatitis B Surface (antigen)
HBcAb
Antibody to the Hepatitis B Core Antigen
HBcAb
Antibody to the Hepatitis B Core Antigen
HBeAb
Antibody to the Hepatitis B e Antigen
HB-Ag
Hepatitis B Antigen
HBcAg
Hepatitis v Core Antigen
HBeAg
Hepatitis B e Antigen
HBsAg
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen. This is the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus that triggers an antibody response. HBsAg "positive" or "reactive" means that the person is infected with HBV and can possibly pass it on to others with whom they come into contact with
HbCV
Hepatitis B Conjugate Vaccine
HBIG
Hepatitis V Immune Globulin
HBV
Hepatitis B Virus
HC
High Calorie
HCD
High Carbohydrate Diet
HCI
Hydrochloric Acid
HCO3
Bicarbonate
HCS
Hematocystic
Hct
Hematocrit
HCV
Hepatitis C Virus
HCV-RNA
(Hepatitis C Virus Ribonucleic Acid)--Fragments of the replicating hepatitis C virus. These can be detected using highly sophisticated testing to determine the level of the hepatitis C virus present in the body
HCV-RNA (qPCR)-Negative
Is defined as less than 100 copies/ml of hepatitis C viral RNA as measured by the National Genetics Institute assay. Considered a Sustained Response
HDL
High Density Lipoprotein. Known as "good" cholesterol, HDL's are large, dense, protein-fat particles that circulate in the blood picking up already used and unused cholesterol and taking them back to the liver as part of a recycling process. Higher levels of HDL's are associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease because the cholesterol is cleared more readily from the blood
HDL(1)
Lp(a) Lipoprotein
HDL(2)
High Density Lipoprotein
HDL(3)
High Density Lipoprotein
HDL-C
HDL-Cholesterol
HDLP
High Density Lipoprotein
HDV
Hepatitis D Virus, Human Delta Virus
HE
Human Enteric
H&E
Hematoxlin and Eosin (Stain)
Heartburn
A sensation of warmth or burning behind the sternum or in the epigastrium. Sometimes there is a acidic taste associated with heartburn
Heartsease
Viola Tricolor--also known as Wild Pansy. Used in the form of an ointment and poultice in eczema and other skin troubles, and internally for bronchitis
HELLP Syndrome
Hemolysis elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count: a serious disorder of pregnancy of unknown etiology that occurs between the 23rd and 39th weeks, that is characterized by a great reduction in the number of platelets per cubic millimeter, by hemolysis, by abnormal liver function tests, and sometimes by hypertension, and that requires termination of pregnancy
Helminth
Aparasitic worm such as a ascarid, liver fluke, tapeworm, or leech
Helper Cell
A type of lymphocyte which aids the recognition of specific antigens and the production of an immune response
Helper T Cell (HTL)
Helper T Cells are activated by binding to an HTL specific epitope presented by cells in a similar fashion as CTL epitopes are presented. When activated, HTLs help expand the immune response by releasing chemicals which stimulate the CTL response and the B-cell antibody responses
Hematemesis
Vomiting of blood
Hematochezia
The passage of bright red blood from the rectum. It is often due to bleeding from the colon, rectum or hemorrhoids
Hematocrit
The percentage of the volume of a blood sample occupied by cells
Hematogenous
Concerned with the production of blood or of one or more of its constituents. Taking place or spread by way of the blood
Hematoma
Bruising. Accumulation of blood trapped within the tissues of the body
Hematuria
Blood in the Urine. Gross hematuria can be observed with the naked eye and indicate severe hemorrhage. Microscopic hematuria is either observed with microscope or by testing for the presence of blood with chemical strips
Hemeproteins
Proteins that contain an iron porphyrin, or heme, prosthetic group resembling that of hemoglobin
Hemlock
Conium Maculatum--POISON. Because of its peculiar sedative action on the motor centers, Hemlock juice (Succus conii) is prescribed as a remedy in cases of undue nervous motor excitability, acute mania, spasms of the larynx and gullet, teething in children, epilepsy from dentition cramp, in the early stages of paralysis agitans, etc. As an inhalation it is said to relieve cough in bronchitis, whooping cough, asthma, etc. Hemlock has to be administered with care, as narcotic poisoning may result from internal use, and overdoses produce paralysis. In poisonous doses it produces complete paralysis with loss of speech, the respiratory function is at first depressed and ultimately ceases altogether and death results from asphyxia. The mind remains unaffected to the last. In the account of the death of Socrates, reference is made to loss of sensation as one of the prominent symptoms of his poisoning, but the dominant action is on the motor system. It is placed in Table II of the Poison Schedule
Hemobilia
Bleeding into the biliary passages
Hemodialysis
A method of dialysis in which blood is purified by circulating through an apparatus outside the body. Sometimes called an "artificial kidney." A process of removing blood from an artery, purifying it, and returning it to the body
Hemoglobin
The red blood pigment which carries oxygen in the blood. A protein in red blood cells that transports oxygen from the lungs

Hemolysis
May be caused by bacterial hemolysins, by antibodies that cause complement dependent lysis, by placing red cells in a hypotonic solution or by defects in the red cell membrane
Hemolytic Anemia
A group of disorder in which anemia occurs due to destruction of red cells. In hemolytic anemia, serum haptoglobin levels is decreased
Hemolytic Jaundice
A type of jaundice, where the skin takes on a yellowish hue, which occurs when red blood cells have been destroyed (by hemolysis)
Hemophiliac
A person who does not produce all of the proteins necessary for clotting blood
Hemopoiesis
The body function in producing blood products. It includes: erythropoiesis: production of red blood cells and leucopoiesis: production of white blood cells
Hemorrhoids
Dilation of veins in the anal area. Problems associated with hemorrhoids occur when these veins become enlarged, prolapsed, or become inflamed or plugged
Hemochromatosis
Disorder of iron metabolism characterized by excess deposition of iron in the tissues, especially the liver. It is characterized by pigmentation of the skin, hepatic cirrhosis, decreased carbohydrate tolerance, cardiomyopathy and endocrinopathy (especially hypogonadism). Mainly seen in men over the age of 40 years. It has an associated arthropathy distinguished by involvement of the metacarpophalangeal joints (particularly the second and third), wrists, knees, shoulders, and hips. There is often an associated chondrocalcinosis
Hemoglobin
The iron containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen
Hemoglobins
Oxygen-carrying pigments of the erythrocytes, formed by the developing erythrocyte in bone marrow. Hemoglobin is a conjugated protein containing four heme groups and globin. A molecule of hemoglobin contains four globin polypeptide chains, designated alpha, beta, gamma, delta in the adult. Each is composed of several hundred amino acids
Hemolysis
Destruction of red blood cells, resultant escape of hemoglobin
Hemolytic Anemia
Anemia caused by excessive destruction of red blood cells
Hemoperfusion
Dialysis of the blood to remove foreign substances such as poisons or drugs
Hemophilia
Hereditary blood disease where the blood fails to clot and abnormal bleeding occurs. It is found only in males and is treated by injections of Factor VIII
Hemopoietic
Blood cell formation
Hemoptysis
Coughing up blood
Hemorrhage
Rupture of a blood vessel or leakage of blood from a vessel. Significance of hemorrhage depends upon the volume of blood loss, rate of loss, and site of hemorrhage. Rapid losses of greater than 20% of the blood volume may induce hypovolemic shock. Hemorrhage that might be insignificant in the subcutaneous tissue can be fatal when located within the brain
Hemosiderosis
A focal or general increase in tissue iron stores without associated tissue damage
Hemostasis
Stopping the flow of bleeding, stopping or slowing circulation. the ability to control bleeding following trauma to the tissue. It is affected by vascular reaction, platelet function, and coagulation factors
Hemostatic
Agent that arrests bleeding and hemorrhages
Hemothorax
When blood accumulates in one of the chest cavity. Blood in the pleural space of the chest
Hematochezia
Maroon stools, usually from a lower GI bleed
HEN
Home Enteral Nutrition
Henna
Lawsonia Alba--Widely used in Europe for tinting the hair, usually in the form of a shampoo. There has been found in Henna a brown substance of a resinoid fracture, having the chemical properties much like the tannins, and therefore named Hennotannic acid. It has been used both internally and locally in jaundice, leprosy, smallpox, and affections of the skin
HEP
Hepatic
Hepar
Liver
Heparin
A glycosaminoglycan sulfuric acid ester that occurs esp. in the liver and lungs, that prolongs the clotting time of blood by preventing the formation of fibrin, and that is administered parenterally in the form of its sodium salt in vascular surgery and in the treatment of postoperative thrombosis and embolism. In other words-A medication which quickly produces anticoagulation and which must be given by injection
Hepat, Hepato
Combining form meaning liver, hepatic
Hepatalgia
Pain in the Liver
Hepatatrophia
Atrophy of the liver
Hepatectomize
To deprive of the liver by surgical removal
Hepatectomy
Excision of the liver or a part of it
Hepatic
Pertaining to the liver, involving the liver
Hepatic Arteriole
Proposed but controversial supply arteriole from terminal hepatic artery into parenchymal sinusoids in the periportal region
Hepatic Artery
Branch of the celiac artery that supplies the liver with arterial blood
Hepatitic Calculi
Stones originating in extrahepatic biliary tract or solely in the liver. Also found in liver cysts
Hepatic Cell
Hepatocyte
Hepatic Coma
State of unconsciousness seen in patients severely ill with liver disease. Sometimes the precomatose state of hepatic encephalopathy. A coma that is induced by severe liver disease
Hepatic Duct
Common bile duct. A duct conveying the bile away from the liver and uniting with the cystic duct to form the common bile duct
Hepatic Encephalopathy
All stages in the onset and development of coma, Changes in consciousness, behavior, mental state. Occurs in advanced liver disease. A group of symptoms that may occur when there is damage to the brain and nervous system as a complication of liver disorders, characterized by various neurologic symptoms including changes in behavior changes, consciousness, and personality changes. Abnormal brain function caused by passage of toxic substances from the liver to the blood
Hepatic Flexure
Also called Right Colic Flexure, the right-angle bend in the colon on the right side of the body near the liver that marks the junction of the ascending colon and the transverse colon
Hepaticoduodenostomy
Anastomosis of the hepatitic duct to the duodenum
Hepaticoenterostomy
Anastomosis of the hepatitic duct to the intestine
Hepaticogastrostomy
Anaastomosis of the hepatitic duct to the stomach
Hepaticojejunostomy
Anastomosis of the hepatic duct to the jejunum
Hepaticojejunostomy Roux-en-Y
The surgical fashioning of a direct connection between hepatic duct and jejunum to drain bile directly from the liver when disease or injury has damaged the bile ducts
Hepaticolithotomy
Incision of the hepatic duct with removal of calculi
Hepaticolithotripsy
The crushing of a calculus in the hepatitic duct
Hepaticostomy
Fistulization of the hepatitc duct
Hepaticotomy
Incision of the hepatitic duct
Hepatic Necrosis
Destruction of functional liver tissue
Hepatic Portal System
nt>Group of veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach, spleen, intestine, and pancreas to the sinusoids of the liver
Hepatic Portal Vein
A portal vein carrying blood from the digestive organs and spleen to the liver where the nutrients carried by the blood are altered by hepatocytes before passing into the systemic circulation
Hepatic Siderosis
The deposit of an abnormal quantity of iron in the liver
Hepatitc Trauma
Liver injury resulting from blunt trauma or penetrating wounds
Hepatic Tuberculosis
Infection of the liver with tubercle bacilli producing localized granulomata, miliary lesions, or tuberculoma
Hepatic Vein
Any of a group of veins that transports blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava, which carries the blood to the right atrium of the heart. In the ascent to the heart, the inferior vena cava passes along a groove in the posterior side of the liver, it is there that the hepatic veins joins it. Blood transported by the hepatic veins comes not only from the liver but also from most of the abdominal organs. This blood flows to the liver by way of the aportal vein. Veins which drain the liver
Hepatic Vein Thrombosis
Occlusion of the hepatic veins caused by thrombi or fibrous obliteration of the veins
Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver, Swollen Liver, liver disease involving degenerative or necrotic alterations of hepatocytes
Hepatitis A
Self-limited viral disease of worldwide distribution caused by the hepatitis A virus, more common in areas of poor hygiene and low socioeconomic standards, transmitted almost exclusively by the fecal-oral route, although parenteral transmission is possible; no carrier state. Incubation period is approximately 30 days, with a range of 15 to 50 days. Most cases are clinically inapparent or have mild flulike symptoms; jaundice, if present, is usually mild. Massive hepatic necrosis (fulminant hepatitis) can occur but much less commonly than with hepatitis B or non-A, non-B hepatitis. Previously called epidemic hep., MS-1 hep., jaundice infectious hep., and short-incubation hepatitis
Hepatitis A Virus, Human
Species of Hepatovirus which causes human hepatitis A. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is thought to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route
Hepatitis Agents, GB
Proposed members of the family Flaviviridae. GBV-B causes hepatitis in tamarins and possibly humans, and is the putative etiological agent of a non-(A-E) hepatitis, GB hepatitis
Hepatitis A Virus, VP3 Protein (62-75)
Synthetic peptide
Hepatitis--Alcoholic
Acute or chronic degenerative and inflammatory lesion of the liver in the alcoholic which is potentially progressive or reversible; it does not necessarily include steatosis, fibrosis, or cirrhosis of alcoholics, although it is frequently associated with these conditions. Liver inflammation resulting from alcoholism, often a precursor of cirrhosis of the liver
Hepatitis Antibodies
Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis
Hepatitis Antigens
Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens
Hepatitis B
Viral disease caused by the hepatitis B virus that is endemic worldwide, the areas of highest endemicity being China and Southeast Asia, subSaharan Africa, most Pacific islands, and the Amazon basin. The virus is shed in all body fluids by individuals with acute or chronic infections and by asymptomatic carriers, and is transmitted primarily by parenteral routes, such as by blood transfusion or by sharing of needles among drug users; oral transmission can occur but has low efficiency, and it can be spread by intimate personal contact, especially sexual contact, and by vertical transmission from mother to neonate. Incubation period averages about 90 days, with a range of 40 to 180 days, the clinical course is more variable than in hepatitis A. During the prodromal phase there may be fever, nausea, malaise, anorexia, and vomiting, which lessens with the onset of clinical jaundice, and urticaria, angioedema, arthritis, or, rarely, glomerulonephritis or a serum sickness like syndrome may occur. Most patients recover completely and become HBS Ag-negative in 3 to 4 months, some will remain chronic carriers or develop chronic active hepatitis or chronic persistent hepatitis. Massive hepatic necrosis (fulminant hepatitis) is an infrequent complication. In areas of high endemicity a relationship has been shown between hepatitis and virus infection, cirrhosis, and primary hepatocellular carcinoma, with the latter being one of the most common neoplasms. Previously called inoculation hepatitis, long incubation hepatitis, MS2 hepatitis, serum hepatitis, and homologous serum hepatitis or jaundice
Hepatitis B Antibodies
Antibodies to the hepatitis B antigens, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens
Hepatitis B Antigens
Antigens of the virion of the Hepatitis B Virus or the Dane particle, its surface, core and other associated antigens, like the HBe antigen
Hepatitis B Core Antigens
Core protein antigen of the hepatitis B virus present inside complete virions (Dane particles) and in free core particles in the nuclei of infected cells; the antigen is not present in the blood of infected individuals, but anti-HBc antibodies appear during the acute infection; they do not protect against reinfection
Hepatitis B e Antigens
Core protein antigen of hepatitis B virus present in the blood in some infected individuals. Anti-HBe antibodies appear transiently during convalescence; they do not protect against reinfection
Hepatitis B Hyperimmune Globulin
has high antibody titre against HBsAg; given in conjunction with vacine for passive immunization
Hepatitis B Surface Antigens
Viral antigen of the hepatitis B virus detected by radioimmunoassay. An antigen that resembles a virus and is found in the sera especially of patients with hepatitis B -- alsoc called Australia antigen; abbr. HBsAg
Hepatitis B Vaccines
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced
Hepatitis B Virus
Unclassified DNA virus having complex, double-layered virions 42 nm in diameter, double-stranded genome, and three major antigens, the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg), surface antigen (HBsAg), and e antigen (HBeAg). Etiologic agent of hepatitis B
Hepatitis B Virus, Duck
DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks
Hepatitis B Virus Large Envelope Protein
Required for hepatitis B virion maturation; amino acid sequence has been determined
Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck
Orthohepadnavirus causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus
Hepatitis C
Viral disease caused by the hepatitis C virus, most common form of post-transfusion hepatitis; also follows parenteral drug abuse and is a common acute sporadic hepatitis, with approximately 50% of acutely infected persons developing chronic hepatitis. Chronic infection is generally mild and asymptomatic, but cirrhosis may occur
Hepatitis C Antibodies
Antibodies to the Hepatitis C antigens including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins
Hepatitis C Antigens
Antigens of the virions of hepatitis C-like viruses, their, core, surface or other associated antigens
Hepatitis, Chronic Active
Chronic inflammation of the liver occurring as a sequel to hepatitis B or non-A, non-B hepatitis. The same disease may occur in congenital or acquired hypogammaglobulinemia, or in association with the administration of certain drugs. It is characterized by infiltration of portal areas by plasma cells and macrophages, piecemeal necrosis (destruction of hepatocytes in the periphery of lobules), and fibrosis. The course is highly variable; there may be long asymptomatic periods interspersed with periods of symptomatic hepatitis with malaise, jaundice fever, and anorexia; there may be extrahepatic manifestations, including amenorrhea, arthritis, thyroiditis, skin rashes, vasculitis, glomerulonephritis ulcerative colitis, and Sjogren's syndrome; or the disease may progress to cirrhosis and liver failure. Autoimmune pathogenesis is suspected. Also called autoimmune hepatitis, chronic aggressive hepatitis, plasma cell hepatitis, lupoid hepatitis, subacute hepatitis, and acute juvenile cirrhosis
Hepatitis C-Like Viruses
Genus of Flaviviridae causing parenterally transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (Hepatitis C) which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species
Hepatitis C Virus Envelope 2 Protein
RN refers to quasispecies 4E; amino acid sequence known
Hepatitis C Virus Nucleocapsid Protein
Antibodies against the above protein are found in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma; amino acid sequence has been determined
Hepatitis E
Acute form of hepatitis caused by a virus serologically distinct from the agents of hepatitis A, B, and C. Hepatitis E is associated with fecally contaminated water, is enterically transmitted, commonly found in tropical or subtropical countries
Hepatitis E Virus
Positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus Calicivirus, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (Hepatitis C)
Hepatitis, Infectious Canine
Adenovirus infection causing fever, edema, vomiting, and diarrhea in dogs, especially puppies. In foxes it causes acute encephalitis with coma, convulsions, paralysis, and death
Hepatitis, Lupoid
Chronic active hepatitis associated with Lupus Erythematosus
Hepatitis, Non A Non B
Hepatitis clinically and immunologically similar to hepatitis A and hepatitis B but caused by different viruses
Hepatitis, Peliosis
An abnormal condition characterized by the occurrence of numerous small blood-filled cystic lesions throughout the liver
Hepatitis, Toxic
Hepatitis caused by true hepatotoxins and drugs which induce a hypersensitivity reaction
Hepatitis, Viral, Animal
Viral hepatitis in animals
Hepatitis, Viral, Human
Viral hepatitis in man
Hepatitis Virus, Duck
Highly fatal, rapidly spreading picornavirus disease of waterfowl ducklings, characterized primarily by hepatitis marked by an enlarged, mottled, hemorrhagic liver
Hepatitis Viruses
Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. Includes both RNA and DNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals
Hepatization
Conversion of tissue (such as the lungs in pneumonia) into a substance which resembles liver tissue

© Vikki Shaw

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    Information about the transmission of Hepatitis C.

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  • Learn about Hepatitis C Genotypes and their variants.

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    Provides detailed information on how to analyze and interpret viral load numbers as well as a link to a convenient Viral Load Chart.

  • Liver Enzymes

    Learn about the importance of testing liver enzyme levels and causes of abnormal levels.

  • Lab Tests

    What they are and what they mean. Helps you interpret & understand all the various hepatitis lab tests likely to be encountered.

  • Hepatitis During Pregnancy

    Learn how hepatitis infection may affect the pregnant mother and baby.

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    Learn about the conventional medical treatments used to fight Hepatitis C.

  • Hepatitis C Medicines

    Numerous links to studies, info sheets, FAQs, and analysis of Ribavirin/Rebetron medicines.

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    Alternative methods of treatment due to side effects and dissatisfication with current medical treatments.

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    A number of herbal products useful in the management of liver disease.

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    Provides information regarding the best known liver supporting supplements.

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    Provides information regarding the best known milk thistle supplements.

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    A basic diet for those with Hepatitis C.

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    Survivor stories that have been shared to benefit others with Hepatitis C.

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