The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – L

Liver, Liter
Tear related
Intestinal enzyme that is needed to digest lactose
Lactic Acid
A byproduct of carbohydrate metabolism (anaerobic metabolism). A lactic acid level may be measured in the bloodstream in conditions of metabolic acidosis
Lactic Acid Levels
A test that measures the amount of lactic acid in the blood. Lactic acid is an intermediate product of carbohydrate metabolism and is derived mainly from muscle cells and red blood cells. Exercise will normally raise lactic acid levels. Conditions of oxygen deprivation (e.g. heart failure, lung disease, shock) will trigger anaerobic metabolism within muscle tissue resulting in lactic acid build up in the tissues. Normal lactic acid levels are 4.5 to 19.8 mg/dl.
Lactic Dehydrogenase
Also see LDH, Increase of LD activity in serum may occur in any injury that causes loss of cell cytoplasm. More specific information can be obtained by LD isoenzyme studies. Also, elevation of serum LD is observed due to in vivo effects of anesthetic agents, clofibrate, dicumarol, ethanol, fluorides, imipramine, methotrexate, mithramycin, narcotic analgesics, nitrofurantoin, propoxyphene, quinidine, and sulfonamides. Decrease of serum LD is probably not clinically significant
Complex sugar found in milk and milk products. Lactose must be broken down into the simple sugars galactose and glucose to be absorbed
Lactose Intolerance
Common condition in which a person does not produce enough lactase to digest the lactose in milk/products. Commonly associated with diarrhea and abdominal cramping after drinking milk or eating dairy products. This problem is present in over 80 percent of nonwhite adults
Drug used to treat chronic constipation and disturbances of function in the central nervous system accompanying severe liver disease, also used to treat encephalopathy (brain fog)
Lady’s Mantle
Alchemilla Vulgaris. Used topically on wounds to stop bleeding and promote healing. Taken internally, it is used to regulate menstruation and stimulate the appetite. Also makes a soothing douche for mild vaginal irritations
Laennec’s Cirrhosis
Also called Portal Cirrhosis. Hepatic cirrhosis in which increased connective tissue spreads out from the portal spaces compressing and distorting the lobules, causing impairment of liver function, and ultimately producing the typical hobnail liver
Lancet Fluke
Small liver fluke of the genus, mainly found in cattle and sheep and rarely infects humans
Endoscope that is used to examine the peritoneal (abdominal) cavity and the surface the organs it contains
Examination of the interior of the abdominal cavity by a lighted tube
An incision into the abdomen or loin, for diagnostic and/or surgical purposes
Lardaceous Liver
Albuminoid liver
Large Intestine
Part of the intestinal tract that extends from the ileum to the anus. The large intestine is divided into the appendix, colon, (ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid), cecum, colon , anus and rectum
A drug for diuresis, gets its name in that it usually lasts six hours. For Water Retention
In order to increase their chances of survival and successful avoidance of the immune system, many viruses lie dormant for a defined period before reproducing within their host cells, or many launch periodic infections and reinfections of a host over a period of years, even a lifetime. This period is known as latency
Latent Infection
Viral infection in which the virus responsible is able to avoid the hosts immune system and defenses. Viruses which are able to down-regulate their gene expression can establish a truly latent state, i.e. with strictly limited gene expression and without ongoing virus replication. Latent virus infections typically persist for the entire life of the host
Latent Period
Inactive period. The time from infection to when the individual is infectious to others. Not the same as the incubation period
Towards the side. To the right or left of the middle line of the body or other reference point
Used as an antispasmodic, carminative, cholagogue, diuretic, dizziness, fainting, flatulence, migraine headache, sedative, stimulant, stomachic, tonic. Shown to have some antiseptic properties and is useful against putrefactive bacteria in the intestines
Substance used to produce bowel movement and relieve constipation; mild purgative
A free amino acid. Believed to help the body protect itself against diseases of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular system and muscles. It has shown some beneficial effects for treating diabetes, and there is evidence that L-carnitine helps build muscle tissue
Lechithin Cholesterol Acyltransferase
Long Chain Triglyceride
Liver Disease, Also See Lactic Dehydrogenase
Lactic Dehydrogenase, commonly included in automated analysis, is insensitive as an indicator of hepatocellular injury but is better as a marker for hemolysis or MI. It might be quite high with malignancies involving the liver. Also see Lactic Dehydrogenase
Low Density Lipoprotein, Also known as “bad” cholesterol, LDL’s are large, dense, protein-fat particles composed of a moderate proportion of protein and a high proportion of cholesterol. Higher levels of LDL’s are associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease. The ideal LDL cholesterol blood level in the United States ranges from 60 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter of blood) to 160 mg/dL. The value of blood LDL cholesterol level by itself is limited. It should be compared to other blood lipid levels such as Total Cholesterol, HDL (High Density Lipopritein) Cholesterol, and triglycerides to draw accurate conclusions about diagnosis and treatment
Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol
Low Density Lipoprotein
Liver Damage Score
Lupus Erythematosus
Also called Phosphatidylcholine. Lecithin contains Choline & Inositol which are essential for the breakdown of fats and cholesterol. Lecithin helps prevent arterial congestion, cleans the liver, purifies the kidneys, helps distribute bodyweight, increases immunity to virus infections. Especially important to prevent arteriosclerosis, protect against cardiovascular disease, and increase brain function, Lecithin is known to promote energy, and is needed to help repair damage to the liver caused by alcoholism. Essential for the metabolism of fats and are used in the processing of foods. Deficiency leads to hepatic and renal disorders, high serum cholesterol levels, atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis. Waxy substance found in bile that assists the bile salts in dissolving fats. Forms colloidal solutions in water, and have emulsifying, wetting, and antioxidant properties
A benign tumor of muscle of internal organs
Lemon Balm
Melissa Officinalis–Also called balm mint, bee balm, blue balm, cure-all, dropsy plant, garden balm, lemon balm, melissa, and sweet balm. Used as an antispasmodic, calmative, carminative, diaphoretic, emmenagogue, and stomachic. Remedy for common female complaints, and is useful for all sorts of nervous problems, including hysteria, melancholy and insomnia. Balm tea is used to relieve chronic bronchial catarrh, cramps, colic, dyspepsia, flatulence, migraine, toothache, and some forms of asthma and during pregnancy, for headaches and dizziness. Lemon Balm has the ability to heal wounds, ease indigestion, fight cold sores, relieve menstrual cramps, relax nerves, soothe minor wounds , insect stings, helps prevent sleeplessness and repel mosquitoes
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
Injury, Wound. Circumscribed pathological alteration of tissue
Lesser Omentum
Part of the peritoneum attached to the liver and to the lesser curvature of the stomach and supporting the hepatic vessels
Lowered level of consciousness marked by listlessness, drowsiness
Essential amino acid. White, crystalline amino acid essential for optimal growth in infants and nitrogen equilibrium in adults. Cannot be synthesized by the body and is obtained by the hydrolysis of food protein during pancreatic enzyme digestion
White blood cell which appears 5,000 to 10,000 times in each cubic millimeter of normal human blood. Among the most important functions are destroying bacteria, fungi and viruses and rendering harmless poisonous substances that may result from allergic reactions and cell injury
Leukocyte Count
A white blood cell (WBC) count.
White blood cell related
Increased white blood cell count
Reduced white blood cell count
LeVeen Shunt
A plastic tube that passes from the jugular vein to the peritoneal cavity where a valve permits absorption of ascitic fluid which is carried back to venous circulation by way of the superior vena cava
Levin Tube
A tube designed to be passed into the stomach or duodenum through the nose
Liver Function Test
Name applied to many different kinds of papular skin diseases
Glycyrrhiza Glabra. About ninety percent of this herb is used in flavoring tobacco products. Licorice is about fifty times sweeter than sugar and comes in a commercial form known as ammoniated glycyrrhizin. Used to treat bladder problems, coughs, fevers, food poisoning, hoarseness, inflammation, kidney problems, liver and uterine problems, malaria, respiratory problems, sore throats, and stomach problems. A remedy for arthritis due to its anti-inflammatory properties; it stimulates the production of two natural steroids: aldosterone and cortisone. Also acts as a demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, and laxative. Stimulates the production of bile by the liver and can relieve stomach aches and ulcers. Can also lower cholesterol. If you have a history of congestive heart failure, kidney disease, and liver disorders should not use licorice compounds. If you are pregnant or nursing, consult your physician before using this product. People with a history of renal failure or those currently using cardiac glycosides may wish to avoid use of Licorice as a precautionary measure
Life Expectancy
Longevity, the average length of life of individuals in a population
Ligamentum Venosum
A cord of tissue connected to the liver that is the vestige of the ductus venosus
Any substance, such as catgut, cotton, silk or wire used to tie a vessel or strangulate a part
Major noncarbohydrate kind of dietary fiber. A natural plastic binder for cellulose fibers. Together with cellulose, lignin forms the woody cell walls of vegetables and other plants and the cementing material between them
Edge related, Marginal
Sexual desire
Medicinal substance, thinner than an ointment, is gently rubbed into the skin for relief from pain of sprains and bruises
Exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, hypotensive, nervine properties. A specific in the treatment of raised blood pressure associated with arteriosclerosis and nervous tension. Used in the treatment of some forms of migraine
A process is linear if doubling the starting conditions doubles the outcome. For example, the number of new schistosome infections establishing in mice is directly proportional to the number of cercaria the mice are exposed to, over a certain range. Outside this range, the response is nonlinear: there is no longer a direct proportionality
Lipid — Lipide
Fat, and fat-like materials which, together with proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the main structural substances in the living cell. Any of various substances that are soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, that with proteins and carbohydrates constitute the principal structural components of living cells, and that include waxes, fats, cerebrosides, phospholipids, and related and derived compounds
Lipid Metabolism
Conversion of fatty materials to energy and by-products
A disorder of fat metabolism particularly involving the deposition of fat in an organ such as the liver or spleen
Fat metabolism disturbance
Lipoic Acid
Sulfur-containing coenzyme used in the energy process and is also a powerful antioxidant. Has been used therapeutically in the treatment of AIDS and diabetes because of the synergy between alpha-lipoic acid and vitamin E and the interlocking cycles which lead to better optimization of antioxidant nutrients
With an affinity for fat
Any complex of fat and protein. Complex particles made of proteins, lipids and cholesterol. According to their density when separated by ultracentrifugation, a distinction is made between the low-density (LDL) and the high-density (HDL) lipoprotein
Fatty or oily globule
Fat soluble sterols. Sterols are a large subgroup of steroids containing an OH group at position 3 on the carbon chain and a branched aliphatic side chain of eight or more carbon atoms at position 17
Left Inner Quadrant
The transformation of a gas into a liquid
Solution of medicinal substances in water
Condition characterized by the formation of calculi and concretions
Breaking up the renal calculi (kidney stones) with sound waves so they can be passed in the urine
Mottled discoloration of the skin
Large tubular vertebrate gland that secretes bile and acts in the formation of blood and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins & minerals. Our bodies filtering system. 2. Large gland of a dark-red color situated in the upper part of the abdomen on the right side. Also called Hepar. Its domed upper surface fits closely against and is adherent to the inferior surface of the right diaphragmatic dome, and it has a double blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein. It comprises thousands of minute lobules (lobuli hepatitis), the functional units of the liver. Its manifold functions include the storage and filtration of blood, the secretion of bile, the excretion of bilirubin and other substances formed elsewhere in the body, and numerous metabolic functions, essential to life. 3. A large very vascular glandular organ of vertebrates that secretes bile and causes important changes in many of the substances contained in the blood which passes through it (such as converting sugars into glycogen which it stores up until required and by forming urea) and that in humans is the largest gland in the body, weighs from 40 to 60 ounces (1100 to 1700 grams), is a dark red color, and occupies the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity immediately below the diaphragm
Liver Abscess
Solitary or multiple collections of pus within the liver. It is usually associated with systemic manifestations of toxemia and clinical signs of disease in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen
Liver Abscess, Amebic
Liver abscess caused by Entamoeba Histolytica
Liver, Artificial
Devices for simulating the activities of the liver. They often consist of a hybrid between both biological and artificial materials
Liver Biopsy
Microscopic examination of tissue removed from the liver to look for the presence of inflammation and liver damage
Liver Cancer
A malignant tumor of the liver
Liver Cell
Liver Circulation
Circulation of blood through the vessels of the liver
Liver Cirrhosis
Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules
Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary
Liver cirrhosis in which there is interference with intrahepatic bile flow. It includes primary biliary cirrhosis, an intrahepatic disturbance of bile secretion affecting predominantly middle-aged women and with segmental destruction and, later, absence of septal bile ducts (cirrhosis is the end stage); and secondary biliary cirrhosis, which is produced by prolonged mechanical obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts
Liver Cytosol Antigen Type 1
Protein of MW 240-290 kDa (human) & 220-270 kDa (rat); autoantibodies to LC1ag may be a more specific marker for autoimmune chronic active hepatitis type 2
Liver Diseases, Alcoholic
Liver diseases associated with alcoholism. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, but may be the general entity when subentities are not specified
Liver Diseases, Parasitic
Infections of the liver with a parasite. They are caused most commonly by trematodes (flukes)
Liver Extracts
Brownish, somewhat hygroscopic powder prepared from mammalian livers; used as a hematopoietic
Liver Failure
Severe inability of the liver to carry out its normal functions or the demands made upon it. Symptoms include severe jaundice and abnormal levels of ammonia, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and reversal of the albumin/globulin ratio
Liver Failure, Acute
Form of liver failure with rapid onset. Often induced by the toxic effect of drugs and various toxic substances in experimental studies in animals and in clinical states in humans. If coma ensues, the constellation of neurological symptoms is referred to as Hepatic Encephalopathy
Liver Fluke
Any of several parasitic tremarode worms that infest the liver of various animals including humans
Liver Function Test
The term “liver function tests” and its abbreviated form “LFTs” is a commonly used term that is applied to a variety of blood tests that assess the general state of the liver and biliary system.
Liver Glycogen
Glycogen stored in the liver
Having a liver disorder, Bilious
The Hepatica
Liver Neoplasms, Experimental
Experimentally induced tumors of the liver
Liver Regeneration
Repair or renewal of hepatic tissue
Liver Related Donor — >LRD
Blood relative who donates an organ
Liver Rot
A disease that is caused by liver flukes particularly in cattle and sheep and is marked by anemia, sluggishness, and wasting and by local damage to the liver
Liver-Specific Transcription Factor LF-B1
From rat liver nuclear extract; plays dominant role in cell-type specific transcription of albumin promoter: interacts with liver-specific gene promoters
Liver Spots
Spots of darker pigmentation on the skin. Some refer to them as age spots
Liver Transplant
The transfer of a healthy liver from one individual to another
Liverwort, American
Anemone Hepatica. Used as a mild remedy in disorders of the indigestion, liver, etc. Possesses pectoral properties it is used in the treatment of coughs, bleeding of the lungs and diseases of the chest
Suggesting liver disorder
Left Lower Quadrant
Subdivision of an organ (liver) or part bounded by fissures, structural boundaries or connective tissue
Surgical excision of a lobe
Having lobes
An excellent expectorant. Reduces inflammation and stimulates respiration.  Has been used especially for its antispasmodic qualities to treat asthma and whooping cough. Given in large amounts it will induce vomiting. It has a general depressant action on the central and autonomic nervous system, and also on the neuro-muscular action. Primary use is in the treatment of bronchitic asthma and bronchitis. Powerful respiratory stimulant. Externally, this herb can be made into a poultice for bruises, erysipelas, felons, insect bites, ringworm, sprains, and poison ivy irritation
Fatty degeneration of the liver. Of, relating to, affecting, or resembling a lobule
Having more than one lobe or part
A small lobe, (like the ear), A subdivision of a lobe; specif : one of the small masses of tissue of which various organs (such as the liver) are made up
Local Therapy
Treatment that affects a tumor and the tissue near it
The site on a chromosome (or physical map) occupied by a gene. Homologous chromosomes generally have the same genes at the same loci. In everyday usage, locus is used synonymously with gene
Longitudinal Study
A study taking place over time. If individuals are followed, this is a longitudinal cohort study. If individuals are not followed, but classes (usually age classes) are restudied, this is a longitudinal cross-sectional study
Also called Long Purples, Milk Willow herb, Purple loose strife, Purple Willow herb, Rainbow weed, Spiked Loosestrife, Spiked Willow herb, Soldiers, and Willow Sage. Has been used effectively as an astringent and styptic. Effective against diarrhea, simple diarrhea associated dysentery and typhoid fever. The infusion or fluid extract is also used for gastroenteritis and is particularly useful for diarrhea in infants. Helps to stop internal bleeding, works without producing constipation
Levisticum Officinale. Has diuretic and carminative actions. Used in disorders of the stomach and fever, especially for cases of colic and flatulence in children, its expelling flatulence, inducing perspiration and opening obstructions
A drug that decreases the level of cholesterol in the bloodstream by inhibiting the liver enzyme that controls cholesterol synthesis and is used in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia
Low Density Lipoprotein-LDL
A type of fat in the blood, measured as cholesterol, which when pathologically increased promotes narrowing of the arteries
Lower Esophageal Sphincter
LES. Muscle fibers near the junction of the esophagus and the stomach. Designated to function as a one way valve. Normally the LES relaxes with swallowing to allow food to pass from the esophagus to the stomach, but stays tight the rest of the time to prevent the backflow of stomach contents into the esophagus
L Protein, Hepatitis B Virus
involved in virus morphogenesis; has been sequenced
Liver Related Donor
The major natural hormone produced by the thyroid gland, given in synthetic form to counter under activity of the gland
Clear, not obscure
Parasitic worm, usually the roundworm Ascaris
Inside of a tube. In the intestine, it is the channel through which unabsorbed food, secretions, and wastes flow
Pulmonaria Officinalis. Good expectorant, breaks up chest congestion. Soothes throat irritation and helps cure diarrhea. Used for coughs, hoarseness, and mild lung problems
Lupoid Hepatitis
Chronic active hepatitis associated with Lupus Erythematosus
Name originally given to localized destruction or degeneration of the skin caused by various cutaneous lesions
Left Upper Quadrant
Almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries cells that help fight infection
Swollen Glands
Lymph Glands
See Lymph Nodes
Lymph Nodes
Small, bean-shaped organs located along the channels of the lymphatic system. Lymph nodes store special cells that can trap bacteria or cancer cells traveling through the body in lymph
Lymphatic System
Tissues and organs that produce, carry, and store cells that fight infection and disease. This system includes the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, lymph vessels, and lymph nodes
Lymphatic Tissue
A specialised form of body tissue which contains large numbers of lymphocytes
Small white cell which normally includes 25% of the total white blood cell count but increases in number in response to infection. T and B lymphocytes are responsible for all specific recognition of antigens
White blood cell formed in lymphoid tissue as in the lymph nodes, thymus, spleen & tonsils. Constitutes about 22-28% of all leukocytes in normal human’s blood. Lymphocytosis is seen in infectious mononucleosis, viral hepatitis, cytomegalovirus infection, other viral infections, pertussis, toxoplasmosis, brucellosis, TB, syphilis, lymphocytic leukemias, and lead, carbon disulfide, tetrachloroethane, and arsenical poisonings. A mature lymphocyte count more than 7,000/uL is an individual over 50 years of age is highly suggestive of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Drugs increasing the lymphocyte count include aminosalicyclic acid, griseofulvin, haloperidol, levodopa, niacinamide, phenytoin, and mephenytoin. Lymphopenia is characteristic of AIDS. It is also seen in acute infections, Hodgkin’s disease, systemic lupus, renal failure, carcinomatosis, and with administration of corticosteroids, lithium, mechlorethamine, methysergide, niacin, and ionizing irradiation. Of all hematopoietic cells lymphocytes are the most sensitive to whole-body irradiation, and their count is the first to fall in radiation sickness
White blood cell related
Cancer of the lymphoid tissues
Formation of lymphocytes
Mobilization of an organ by division of restrainnig adhesions, Surgical freeing
Essential amino acid. Important for growth, tissue repair, and the production of hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Research indicates that lysine may be useful in the treatment of migraine and herpes simplex. Precursor to carnitine in the body. Lysine insures the adequate absorption of calcium; helps form collagen (which makes up bone cartilage & connective tissues). A deficiency of Lysine may result in anemia, hair loss, inability to concentrate, irritability, bloodshot eyes, reproductive problems, retarded growth, and tiredness
Special structures within cells that contain powerful enzymes capable of breaking down organic materials, used for the recycling of materials within the cell, and the destruction of a cell, in some circumstances
(Slant)–Abbreviation for an electrolyte analysis
Cell destruction related

© Vikki Shaw