The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – G

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
G
Gastrin, Glycogen
G+
Gram Positive
G(-)
Gram Negative
G6PD Deficiency
Hereditary deficiency of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Seen in people of Mediterranean decent. Associated with destruction of red blood cells.
G
Gastrin, Glycogen
G+
Gram Positive
G(-)
Gram Negative
G6PD Deficiency
Hereditary deficiency of Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Seen in people of Mediterranean decent. Associated with destruction of red blood cells
GA
Gastric Antrum
GAG
Glycosaminoglycan
Gall
Liver Bile
Gallbladder
Small pear shaped muscular sac located under the right lobe of the liver, bile secreted by the liver is stored here, it can store about one-half pint of bile. The bile passes through the bile ducts to the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine) after food is eaten
Gallstone Disease –Gallbladder Disease
Condition of having gallstones in the gallbladder or lodged in one of the ducts leading to or from the gallbladder
Gallstone
Solid masses that form in the gallbladder or bile ducts. Stones are composed largely of scholesterol and bilirubin in varied proportions
GALT
Gut Associated Lymphatic Tissue, Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue
Gamma Glutamyl Transpeptidase
(GGT)–An enzyme contained in the liver that plays a role in metabolism. Elevated above normal in hepatitis
Ganglioside
Any of a group of glycolipids that are found esp. in the plasma membrane of cells of the gray matter and have sialic acid, hexoses, and hexosamines in the carbohydrate part and ceramide as the lipid
Gangrene
Death of tissue, Irreversible tissue damage from pathological interruption of the blood-supply
Garden Thyme
Also known as Creeping thyme, Mountain thyme, and Wild thyme. As a tincture, extract, or infusion, thyme is commonly used in throat and bronchial problems, including acute bronchitis, laryngitis, whooping cough, diarrhea, chronic gastritis, and lack of appetite. Excessive internal use of Garden thyme can lead to symptoms of poisoning and to over stimulation of the thyroid gland
Garlic
Helps protect against heart disease and cancer, and possesses antibiotic effects. Garlic juice and its constituents can slow, or kill, more than sixty fungi and twenty types of bacteria
Garsinia –Citrin
Weight loss-inducing properties, slows down the enzyme process that is responsible for producing fat within the body’s cells.  Also used in the treatment of edema, intestinal parasites, constipation and delayed menstruation
GAS
Gastroenterology
Gastrectomy
Partial–Surgical procedure in which a portion of the stomach is removed
Gastric
Located in the stomach, such as gastric ulcer
Gastric Juice
Colorless, watery acidic digestive fluid secreted by the stomach glands containing hydrochloric acid, mucin, pepsin and rennin
Gastric Lavage
Irrigation of the stomach when poisoning or bleeding is suspected, or to remove ingested toxins before they enter the blood stream
Gastric Mucosa
Inner lining of the stomach
Gastric Resection
Surgical procedure in which part or all of the stomach is removed
Gastric Ulcer
Open sore on the lining of the stomach
Gastrin
Secretion of the gastric mucosa that stimulates production of gastric juice
Gastritis
Upset stomach, Acute or Chronic inflammation of the stomach
Gastro
Gastroenterologist, Belly, Stomach
Gastrocolic Reflex
Mass movement of the contents of the colon that causes the urge to have a bowel movement 30 to 60 minutes after eating. The strength of the reflex is directly related to the number of calories in a meal, particularly the amount of fat in a meal
Gastroduodenal
Stomach, gut related
Gastroenteritis
Gastric flu, inflammation of the lining of both the stomach and the intestine
Gastroenteritis Virus, Murine
Species of the Coronavirus genus causing hepatitis in mice. 4 strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis)
Gastroenterologist
Dr. who specializes in the gastrointestinal tract
Gastroenterology
Subspecialty of the digestive organs involves the liver, stomach, bowels, and gallbladder. A gastroenterologist treats conditions such as abdominal pain, ulcers, diarrhea, cancer, and jaundice. Gastroenterologists perform complex diagnostic and therapeutic procedures using lighted scopes to see internal organs. They consult with surgeons when abdominal operations are indicated. The American Board of Internal Medicine awards a Certificate of Special Qualifications for Gastroenterology
Gastroesophageal
Stomach, gullet related
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
A disorder in which there is recurrent return of stomach contents back up into the esophagus, frequently causing heartburn, a symptom of irritation of the esophagus by stomach acid. This can lead to scarring and stricture of the esophagus, which can require stretching (dilating).10% of patients with GERD develop Barrett’s esophagus which increases the risk of cancer of the oesophagus. 80% of patients with GERD also have a hiatal hernia
Gastrointestinal Series
Gastrointestinal series, or GI series, is an investigation of the gastrointestinal tract in which a series of X-ray photographs are taken. This is made possible when the patient swallows a tasteless solution of barium. X rays are taken as the radiopaque barium passes through the esophagus, stomach, and intestines. The barium solution shows the outline of these hollow organs. The barium is usually given to the patient early in the morning when the stomach is empty. A lower GI series, or barium enema, is used to visualize the large intestine, or colon. In this case, however, the barium solution is given as an enema, rather than being swallowed.
Gastrointestinal Tract
Stomach and intestines
Gastrointestinal Transit
Passage of food through the gastrointestinal tract as measured in minutes or hours. The rate of passage through the intestine is an indicator of small bowel function
Gastroscopy
Gastroscopy is the examination of the internal surface of the stomach through a special instrument (gastroscope) that is passed through the mouth and down the esophagus. The gastroscope may be either a straight tube or flexible fiberscope. Gastroscopy is a type of endoscopy.Visual inspection of the stomach through a long, flexible tube with a light on the end that is swallowed by the patient
Gastrostomy
Surgically created opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall
GAT
Genome Amplification Test
GB
Gallbladder
GBD
Gallbladder Disease
GBS
Gastric Bypass Surgery
GD
Gastroduodenal
GE
Gastroenterostomy, Gastric Emptying, Gastrenteritis, Gastroenterology
Gene
Functional hereditary unit that occupies a fixed location on a chromosone, it has a specific influence on phenotype, and is capable of mutation to various allelic forms
Gene Expression
An important stage of viral replication at which virus genetic information is expressed: one of the major control points in replication
General
Common to a class. Distributed through many parts, diffuse
Generic Drug
Medication sold without an indicated brand name and not protected by trademark
Genetic
Pertaining to reference of origin. Produced by genes
Genetic Engineering
Intentional production of new genes and alteration of genomes by the substitution or addition of new genetic material
Genetic Material
Consisting of either RNA (a few viruses) or DNA (all other organisms), genetic material stores the fundamental information necessary to life. Information that controls reproduction, development, behavior, etc
Genome
Complete set of chromosomes
Genome Replication
The stage of viral replication at which the virus genome is copied to form new progeny genomes
Genotype
Different genotypes of the one virus are similar enough to be regarded as the same type but have some minor differences in their RNA composition. These differences may mean the virus reacts differently to our immune response or to drug treatments and natural therapies. All or part of the genetic constitution of an individual or group.
Gentain
Promotes the production of bile ,gastric juices, and saliva, in the body. Used for the treatment of dyspepsia, sluggish digestion, and loss of appetite
GEP
Gastroenteropancreatic
GER
Gastroesophageal Reflux
GERD
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Germicide
Substance that destroys germs
GET
Gastric Emptying Time
GET 1/2
Gastric Emptying Half Time
GF
Gastric Fluid, Gluten Free
GFR
Glomerular Fltration Rate
GGT
Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase or Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase–Levels of GGT are elevated in hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases that obstruct the common duct but are normal in pregnancy and bone disease. Because it is not physiologically elevated in pregnancy or childhood, GGT has a role in detecting hepatobiliary disease. Drugs and alcohol ingestion, which induce microsomal enzymes, also elevate GGT; alone, it is a poor marker for alcoholic liver disease. Combined with transaminases, the detection of alcohol abuse becomes more secure. An enzyme contained in the liver that plays a role in metabolism. Elevated above normal in hepatitis
GGTP (GAMMA-GT)
Gamma-Glutamyl Transferase is markedly increased in lesions which cause intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction of bile ducts, including parenchymatous liver diseases with a major cholestatic component (e.g., cholestatic hepatitis). Lesser elevations of gamma-GT are seen in other liver diseases, and in infectious mononucleosis, hyperthyroidism, myotonic dystrophy, and after renal allograft. Drugs causing hepatocellular damage and cholestasis may also cause gamma-GT elevation. Gamma-GT is a very sensitive test for liver damage, and unexpected, unexplained mild elevations are common. Alcohol consumption is a common culprit. Decreased gamma-GT is not clinically significant
GI
Gastrointestinal
GIA
Gastrointestinal Assistant
GI Cocktail
A commonly used mixture of liquid donnatal (which stops gastrointestinal spasms), viscous lidocaine and mylanta (which counteracts the stomach acid and soothes the stomach). This concoction is often given to patients presenting with severe heartburn, signs of an ulcer, or indications of an excess production of stomach acid
Gilbert’s Disease
A metabolic disorder probably inherited as an autosomal dominant with variable penetrance and characterized by elevated levels of mostly unconjugated serum bilirubin caused esp. by defective uptake of bilirubin by the liver
Ginger
Zingiber Officinale. The aroma of ginger is due to a volatile oil which it contains in amounts of about one to three percent. Ordinarily taken in the form of capsules, ginger may also be made into a tea or a candy. Promotes cleansing of the body through perspiration, to calm nausea, and to stimulate the appetite, upset stomach, indigestion, cramps, and to dispel chills. Powdered Ginger helps with motion sickness. If suffering from gallstones, or if pregnant or nursing, consult your health care professional before taking. Daily consumption of Ginger may interfere with the absorption of dietary iron and fat-soluble vitamins, digitalis, digoxin, isoniazid, lincomycin, nalidixic acid, oral anticholinergics, phenothiazines, pheytoin, sulfonamides, tetracycline derivatives, warfarin, and phenothiozines or other psychoactive agents which are poorly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract. Ginger may mask the toxicity caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics such as neomycin. May inhibit urinary excretion of alkaline drugs, such as quinidine and amphetamines
Gingival Hypertrophy
Enlargement of the gums. A common side effect of cyclosporine therapy, can be managed with good oral hygiene
Ginkgo Biloba
Ginkgo Biloba. A tall, hardy, deciduous tree, has been used in Chinese medicine for 5000 years to address the health of the brain and respiratory tract. Studies have confirmed many of ginkgo’s ancient traditional uses. Modern clinical use focuses on ginkgo biloba’s positive effect on circulation and as an antioxidant. Used as a treatment for hardening of the arteries, senility, and as a treatment for oxygen deprivation. Powerful antioxidant that prevents platelet aggregation inside arterial walls, keeping them flexible and decreasing the formation of arteriosclerositic plaque.Considered safe and free of side effects, though taking very large doses may lead to diarrhea, nausea and vomiting, which can be controlled by lowering the dosage taken
Ginseng – American
Increases stamina, learning ability, used for stress, fatigue caused by insomnia, poor appetite, nervousness and restlessness. Has been found to protect the body & nervous system from stress, increase physical & mental efficiency, stimulate & increase metabolic function, lower blood pressure & glucose levels when they are high, and raise them when low, increase iron metabolism, increase gastrointestinal movement & tone, and cause changes in nucleic acid (RNA) biosynthesis
Ginseng – Korean
Used for treatments ranging from arthritis, impotence, lethargy, senility, menopausal complaints, and loss of sexual interest. Has been used to combat fatigue, stimulate appetite, and aid in digestion
Ginseng – Siberian
Used to restore memory, concentration and cognitive abilities which may be impaired by improper blood supply to the brain. Siberian Ginseng helps the body handle stressful conditions while enhancing mental and athletic abilities
GIP
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
GIS
Gas In Stomach, Gastrointestinal System
GI Series
Gastrointestinal Series
GIT
Gastrointestinal Tract
GITSG
Gastrointestinal Tumor Study Group
GJ
Gastrojejunostomy
GK
Galactokinase
Gland
Organ that produces a hormone or other secretion
Glands
Any organ or tissue which selectively removes materials from the blood, concentrates or alters them, and secretes them for further use in the body (or for elimination)
Gleet
Chronic inflammation characterized by an abnormal mucus discharge from the orifice or wound
Glisson’s Capsule
An investment of loose connective tissue entering the liver with the portal vessels and sheathing the larger vessels in their course through the organ
Globoside
A complex glycolipid that occurs in the red blood cells, serum, liver, and spleen of humans and accumulates in tissues in one of the variants of Tay-Sachs disease
Glomerulonephritis
Inflammation of the kidney accompanied by inflammation of the capillary loops in the glomeruli of the kidney
Glossitis
Inflammation of the tongue
Glossodynia
Pain in the tongue
Glucagon
Protein hormone secreted by alpha cells of the pancreas which plays a role in carbohydrate metabolism. A protein hormone that is produced esp. by the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and that promotes an increase in the sugar content of the blood by increasing the rate of breakdown of glycogen in the liver. A protein hormone that is produced from the pancreas in response to low blood sugar levels
Glucocorticoid
Any of a group of corticosteroids (as hydrocortisone or dexamethasone) that are involved especially in carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism, that tend to increase liver glycogen and blood sugar by increasing gluconeogenesis, that are anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive, and that are used widely in medicine, as in the alleviation of the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis
Glucokinase
Hexokinase found especially in the liver that catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose
Glucuronidase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes a glucuronide; espicially one that occurs widely (as in the liver and spleen) and hydrolyzes the beta form of a glucuronide
Glucosamine Sulfates
Spurs the chondrocytes (cartilage cell) to produce more collagen and proteoglycans as it normalizes cartilage metabolism, which helps to keep the cartilage from breaking down. Because glucosamine “jump-starts” the production of these key elements of the cartilage matrix, and then protects them, it actually helps the body to repair damaged or eroded cartilage
Glucose
A sugar known as dextrose. Widely used in the human body (and brain) for energy. Hyperglycemia can be diagnosed only in relation to time elapsed after meals and after ruling out spurious influences (especially drugs, including caffeine, corticosteroids, estrogens, indomethacin, oral contraceptives, lithium, phenytoin, furosemide, thiazides, thyroxine, and many more). Generally, fasting blood glucose >140 mg/dL and/or 2h postprandial glucose >200 mg/dL demonstrated on several occasions is suggestive of diabetes mellitus; OGTT is usually not required for diagnosis. In adults, hypoglycemia can be observed in certain neoplasms (islet cell tumor, adrenal and gastric carcinoma, fibrosarcoma, hepatoma), severe liver disease, poisonings (arsenic, CCl4, chloroform, cinchophen, phosphorous, alcohol, salicylates, phenformin, and antihistamines), adrenocortical insufficiency, hypothroidism, and functional disorders (postgastrectomy, gastroenterostomy, autonomic nervous system disorders). Failure to promptly separate serum from cells in a red top tube causes falsely depressed glucose levels. If delay in transporting a blood glucose to the lab is anticipated, the specimen should be collected in a fluoride-containing (gray-top) tube
Glucose Phosphate
A phosphate ester of glucose, such as Glucose-1-Phosphate and/or Glucose-6-Phosphate
Glucose-1-Phosphate
An ester that reacts in the presence of a phosphorylase with aldoses and ketoses to yield disaccharides or with itself in liver and muscle to yield glycogen and phosphoric acid
Glucose-6-Phosphate
Microsomal enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of glucose-6- Phosphate to glucose and inorganic phosphate; present in the kidney, liver, endomentrium and intestinal mucosa. An ester that is formed from glucose and ATP in the presence of a glucokinase and that is an essential early stage in glucose metabolism
Glucose Tolerance Factor
Compound containing chromium that aids insulin in regulating blood sugar levels
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glucose tolerance test is a procedure that a physician carries out to determine whether a patient is able to use and store glucose normally. The test is most commonly carried out to diagnose diabetes mellitus in patients with symptoms suggestive of diabetes. In some persons, however, an abnormally elevated fasting blood sugar level on two occasions may be sufficient to diagnose diabetes. The glucose tolerance test may also be used during pregnancy to test for gestational diabetes. Reactive hypoglycemia may also be diagnosed using this test
Glutamate Dehydrogenase
An enzyme present especially in liver mitochondria and cytosol that catalyzes the oxidation of glutamate to ammonia and a-ketoglutaric acid
Glutamic Acid
Involved in the synthesis of DNA, glutathione and some amino acids. Helps remove excess ammonia from the body. Interconverted by the body into glutamic acid and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA). Considered to be nature’s “brain food” by improving mental capacities, speeds the healing of ulcers, gives a “lift” from fatigue, and helps control alcoholism, craving for sugar and schizophrenia
Glutamine
Non-essential amino acid, glutamine is considered to be a brain fuel. Has been used therapeutically for alcoholism, mild depression and to reduce the craving for sweets. Glutamine is very important in the functioning of the metabolism and muscle maintenance. Glutamine supplementation can help prevent muscle and other tissue breakdown by providing the body with nitrogen and fuel
Glutathione
Natural sulfur-bearing peptide formed from the linking of three amino acids: glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. Acts as an antioxidant and detoxicant and is involved with the selenium-containing enzyme glutathione peroxidase.  Also involved in amino acid transport across cell membranes
Glutathione Peroxidase
Family of antioxidant enzymes containing selenium which are important in the reduction of different hydroperoxides, including hydrogen peroxide which is involved in the irritation of the gastrointestinal tract and increase in perspiration
Gluten
Protein in cereal grains. Barley, Oats, Rye and Wheat, contain the gliadin subfraction of gluten that is toxic to persons with celiac sprue
Glycerol
Also called Glycerin. Sweet syrupy hygroscopic alcohol containing three hydroxy groups per molecule, usu. obtained by the saponification of fats, and used as a moistening agent, emollient, and lubricant, and as an emulsifying agent
Glycine
Natural antacid and sweetener. Involved in the syntheses of DNA, phospholipids and collagen. May act as  a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter. A nonessential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. Sweet crystalline amino acid obtained especially by hydrolysis of proteins and used especially as an antacid. Helps trigger the release of oxygen to the energy requiring cell making process, important in the body’s manufacture of hormones responsible for a strong immune system
Glycogen
Form in which carbohydrate is stored in the body, especially in the liver and muscles, broken down as needed to glucose molecules
Glycogen Storage Disease Type I
Autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood
Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI
Hepatic glycogen storage disease in which there is an apparent deficiency of hepatic phosphorylase activity
Glycogenic
Of, relating to, or involving glycogen or glycogenesis, such as the glycogenic function of the liver
Glycoside
Carbohydrate
Glycosuria
Sugar in the urine
Glycyrrhiza Glabra
Licorice root
gm
Gram
GN
Gram Negative
Goiter
Enlargement of the thyroid gland, causing a swelling in the front part of the neck
Golden Rod
As an anti-inflammatory urinary antiseptic, may be used in cystitis,  and urethritis. Also used to promote the healing of wounds. Exhibits anti-catarrhal, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, astringent, diaphoretic, carminative, and diuretic properties. For upper respiratory catarrh, use Golden Rod with Elder, Eyebright, Echinacea and Wild Indigo
Goldenseal
Hydrastis Canadensis. Used for local inflammation and debility. The root contains a group of alkaloids, hydrastine, berberine and palmatine, which are strong astringent and antiseptic agents. Hydrastine has also been shown to stimulate peristalsis and improve digestion. Used as a wash for skin diseases and sore eyes, has been recommended for a variety of inflamed mucous membranes, including stomach, intestinal, vaginal and rectal.  It is reported that the plant relieves pains and helps heal wounds and stop bleeding. The antibacterial action helps reduce or prevent infection of open sores. High doses of Goldenseal may cause nausea, vomiting, a decrease in the white blood count and feelings of pins and needles in the hands and feet
Gotu Kola
Centella Asiatica. Also known as Hydrocotyle or Indian Pennywort, The crushed leaves are commonly consumed in the form of a salad or tea. Member of the family Apiaceae. Used as an energy tonic, aphrodisiac, and for treatment of high blood pressure and mental disorders, also used to lower fevers, relieve congestion due to colds and upper respiratory infections, treat phlebitis, leg cramps, swelling (edema) and heaviness or tingling in the legs, relieves high blood pressure, mental fatigue, senility, and helps the body defend itself against various toxins. Works as a blood purifier, strengths the heart. Also used on open wounds, sores, ulcers, other infections and radiation ulcers, varicose veins, cellulite. Gotu Kola contains Vitamins A, G, K, high in Magnesium
Gout
Hereditary form of arthritis caused by an excess of uric acid in the blood and by recurrent attacks of acute arthritis
G6PD
Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase
GP
Gram Positive, General Practioner
GPC
Gastric Parietal Cell
Graft
A portion of tissue, or an entire organ (i.e. Liver, Pancreas, Kidney, Heart, Skin) used to replace a defect in the body. Any tissue or organ for implantation or transplantation
Graft Survival
When a transplanted tissue or organ is accepted by the body and functions properly. The potential for graft survival is increased when the recipient and donor are closely matched, and when immunosuppressive therapy is used
Graft-versus-Host Disease
A bodily condition that results when T cells from a usu. allogeneic tissue or organ transplant and especially a bone marrow transplant react immunologically against the recipient’s antigens attacking cells and tissues, that affects especially the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and liver with symptoms including abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, fever, liver dysfunction, and skin rash, and that may be fatal
Gram
Unit of weight. There are about 28 g in 1 ounce. Dietary fat, carbohydrates and protein, are measured in grams
Gram Negative
Bacteria which fail to take up Gram stains during histological preparation for identification: typically bacteria present in the bowel rather than the throat and respiratory tissues
Gram’s Stain
A stain test that identifies various forms of bacterial microorganisms
Granulation
Grainy growth made up of new tissue, which usually appears on raw or irritated skin surfaces. Part of the healing process
Granulocytes
Granulocytes include neutrophils (bands and segs), eosinophils, and basophils. In evaluating numerical aberrations of these cells (and of any other leukocytes), one should first determine the absolute count by multiplying the per cent value by the total WBC count. For instance, 2% basophils in a WBC of 6,000/uL gives 120 basophils, which is normal. However, 2% basophils in a WBC of 75,000/uL gives 1500 basophils/uL, which is grossly abnormal and establishes the diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia over that of leukemoid reaction with fairly good accuracy. Neutrophilia is seen in any acute insult to the body, whether infectious or not. Marked neutrophilia (>25,000/uL) brings up the problem of hematologic malignancy (leukemia, myelofibrosis) versus reactive leukocytosis, including “leukemoid reactions.” Laboratory work-up of this problem may include expert review of the peripheral smear, leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, and cytogenetic analysis of peripheral blood or marrow granulocytes. Without cytogenetic analysis, bone marrrow aspiration and biopsy is of limited value and will not by itself establish the diagnosis of chronic myelocytic leukemia versus leukemoid reaction. Smokers tend to have higher granulocyte counts than nonsmokers. The usual increment in total wbc count is 1000/5L for each pack per day smoked. Repeated excess of “bands” in a differential count of a healthy patient should alert the physician to the possibility of Pelger-Huet anomaly, the diagnosis of which can be established by expert review of the peripheral smear. Neutropenia may be paradoxically seen in certain infections, including typhoid fever, brucellosis, viral illnesses, rickettsioses, and malaria. Other causes include aplastic anemia, aleukemic acute leukemias, thyroid disorders, hypopitituitarism, cirrhosis, and Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Eosinophilia is seen in allergic disorders and invasive parasitoses. Other causes include pemphigus, dermatitis herpetiformis, scarlet fever, acute rheumatic fever, various myeloproliferative neoplasms, irradiation, polyarteritis nodosa, rheumatoid arthritis, sarcoidosis, smoking, tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, idiopathicallly as an inherited trait, and in the resolution phase of many acute infections. Eosinopenia is seen in the early phase of acute insults, such as shock, major pyogenic infections, trauma, surgery, etc. Drugs producing eosinopenia include corticosteroids, epinephrine, methysergide, niacin, niacinamide, and procainamide. Basophilia, if absolute (see above) and of marked degree is a great clue to the presence of myeloproliferative disease as opposed to leukemoid reaction. Other causes of basophilia include allergic reactions, chickenpox, ulcerative colitis, myxedema, chronic hemolytic anemias, Hodgkin’s disease, and status post-splenectomy. Estrogens, antithyroid drugs, and desipramine may also increase basophils. Basopenia is not generally a clinical problem
Granulocytopenia
Lack of white blood cells
Granuloma
Imprecise term applied to small nodular delimited aggregation of mononuclear inflammatory cells, or collection of modified macrophages resembling epithelial cells (epithelioid cells), usually surrounded by a rim of lymphocytes, often with multinucleated giant cells. Some granulomas contain eosinophils and plasma cells, and fibrosis is commonly seen around the lesion. Granuloma formation represents a chronic inflammatory response initiated by various infectious and noninfectious agents
Granuloma, Foreign-Body
Persistent swelling consisting of tightly packed white blood cells surrounding and isolating material not natural to the body
Granulomatous
Abscess, neoplastic infiltration, partial bile duct obstruction
Granulomatous Hepatitis
A multifactorial infiltrative liver disorder with or without additional hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. The term “granulomatous hepatitis” is often used, but the condition is not a true hepatitis. Hepatic granulomas are found in about 3 to 10% of liver biopsies. There may be insignificant incidental findings, but more often they reflect clinically relevant disease –usually a systemic disorder rather than primary liver disease
Grapefruit Seed
Well known as an anti-fungal agent in that their consumption kills many different types of parasites and assists the body in producing beneficial bacteria. A natural ingredient found in the seeds kills candida, e.coli, influenza, herpes, salmonella, staph, strep, parasites, fungi and traveler’s diarrhea, used as an antibiotic, antifungal, antiviral, antiprotozoan, antiseptic and disinfectant
Grape Seed Extract
Helps Vitamin C enter the body’s cells, thus strengthening the cell membranes, and protecting the cells from oxidative damage. Helps increase the effectiveness of vitamin C by acting as a carrier and as a restorer of oxidized vitamin C by working with glutathione. Provides protection to brain and spinal nerves from potent free radical damage. Binds to collagen fibers, increasing elasticity and flexibility in muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Extremely stable on the shelf, showing no loss of potency after 12 years of storage. Has 50 times greater antioxidant capability than vitamin E and 20 times greater activity than vitamin C (in vitro). Powerful, natural and hypoallergenic free radical scavenger and antioxidant. Inhibits the enzymes which lead to histamine formation. Highly bioavailable bioflavonoid complex which is rapidly absorbed and distributed throughout the body within minutes
Gravel Root
Used primarily for kidney stones or gravel. Gravel Root has been used for the following conditions: chronic endometriosis, chronic uterine disease, dropsy, dysmenorrhoea, dysuria, gravel,  hematuria, leucorrhoea, strangury, disease of the kidney and bladder from an excess of uric acid, threatened abortion, ovarian and uterine atony, constant desire to urinate, intermittent fever, and severe bone pains
Gravol
An antihistamine medication which reduces nausea and vomiting caused by narcotics, and which enhances their painkilling effect and causes sedation
Green Tea
Camellia Sinensis. Green tea originates in China, Japan and other parts of Asia. The leaf of the plant is used in creating the extract which is potent and bioflavonoid-rich. Used primarily for its free-radical scavenging capabilities. The key ingredient EGCG, which stands for Epigallocatechin Gallate, protects against digestive and respiratory infections. Historical uses of the tea are reducing high blood pressure, inhibiting pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning and blocking the actions of carcinogens, ultraviolet light and metastasis. Blocks the attachment of bacteria to the teeth, protecting against cavities. Green tea extract is non-toxic, both in acute doses and high long-term doses
Grindelia
Used in asthma, bronchitis, whooping cough and upper respiratory catarrh. Because of the relaxing effect on the heart and pulse rate, there may be a reduction in blood pressure. Exhibits anti-spasmodic, expectorant, and hypotensive properties. Grindelia acts to relax smooth muscles and heart muscles. This explains its use in the treatment of asthmatic and bronchial conditions, particularly when associated with a rapid heart beat and nervous response Lotions containing Grindelia can be used in the dermatitis caused by poison ivy
Griping
Causing a clutching, painful, or grasping feeling in the bowels
GRP
Gastrin Releasing Peptide
GS
Gallstone, Gardner Syndrome
GSE
Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy
GU
Gastric Ulcer. Genitourinary
Guaiac
Resin from the wood of Guajacum officinale and G. sanctum trees, used as a reagent in tests for occult blood and formerly in the treatment of rheumatism
Guaiac Test–Occult Blood Test
Diagnostic test in which a tiny amount of the material to be tested (usually feces) is rubbed on a slide. A chemical reaction is performed to assess the presence or absence of blood, which may not be visible on direct inspection of the specimen
Guanine
Crystalline purine base, one of the four basic nucleotides that comprise DNA
Guarana -Paullinia Cupana
Used as a general tonic for the body and as a source of energy. Guarana acts on the central nervous system to prevent fatigue and break down lactic acid from muscle stress. A high energy source that increases mental alertness, slows the pulse, decreases the appetite, fights fatigue, an excellent mood elevator. Also used as a nervine tonic for hangovers, neuralgia and menstrual headaches, leucorrhea, diarrhea, and fevers; it’s chief use in Europe and North America is for headaches, especially if of a rheumatic or nervous nature
Guar Gum
A digestive fiber used throughout the food industry as a thickening agent. It helps regulate the rate of absorption of nutrients, including sugar, spreading it over a longer period of time. The result is a slower rise in blood sugar levels, and a less rapid subsequent drop
Guiac
A test of stool with a gloved finger inserted looking for blood
Gum Karaya
A soluble fiber which aids in the intestinal processes of the digestive system
Gut
An intenstine; a bowel; the whole alimentary canal; the enteron; (pl) bowels; entrails
GV
Gastric Volume
GVH
Graft versus Host
Gynecomastia
Development of breasts in men

© Vikki Shaw