The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – N

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
N
Nitrogen; normal (strength of solution)
Na
Sodium
NABX
Needle Aspiration Biopsy
NAC
(n-acetyl-l-cysteine) A sulfur compound that is a precursor of glutathione and protected sulfur-containing amino acid
NaCl
Sodium Chloride
Nadir
Low point
NANB
Non-A Non-B Hepatitis (Now called Hepatitis C)
Nanometer
One billionth of a meter, approximately 250 millionths of an inch
Narcotic
Drug that, in moderate doses, allays sensibility, relieves pain, and produces sleep, if misused or taken in large doses, is poisonous to the system
Nasogastric Tube
A plastic tube with a number of openings at the lower end, passed through the nose into the stomach or the purpose of decompressing gas and draining accumulated liquids
Nasse’s Law
Statement of the pattern of X-linked recessive inheritance
Natriuresis
Excretion of sodium by kidneys
Naturopathic Doctor – ND
A physician trained in natural healing meth-ods. Naturopathic doctors receive a four-year postgraduate training at an accredited college or university, and function as primary care providers
Nausea
Feeling sick, the urge to vomit
NBC
Nasobiliary Catheter
NCCAM
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
NE
Needle Electrode
NEC
Necrotizing Enterocolitis
Necr- Necro
A combination form meaning “pertaining to death”
Necrolysis
Gangrene
Necrosis
One of the two mechanisms by which cell death occurs (the other being the physiological process of apoptosis. Necrosis is caused by the progressive degradative action of enzymes and is generally associated with severe cellular trauma. It is characterized by mitochondrial swelling, nuclear flocculation, and uncontrolled cell lysis. Decay or death of one or more cells, resulting from irreversible damage. Death of living tissue; death of a portion of tissue differentially affected by local injury (as loss of blood supply,burning, corrosion, or the local lesion of a disease)
Necrosis, Fat
A condition in which the neutral fats in the cells of adipose tissue are split into fatty acids and glycerol
Necrosis, Tumor Factor
TNF. A protein that is produced by monocytes and macrophages in response especially to endotoxins and that activates leukocytes and has antitumor activity
Needle Disposal Container
Puncture proof container with a lid, specifically designed to hold used syringes and needles until that can be disposed of properly
Needlestick
Puncture of the skin while handling hypodermic needles
NEFA
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Neonate
A baby up to one month old
Neoplastic
Tumor related
Nephritis
Kidney inflammation
Nephrologist
Physician who studies the kidney and treats kidney disease
Nephrolith
Kidney stone
Nephropathy
Kidney disease
Nephrotic
Kidney related disorder
Nephrotoxic
Destructive to the kidneys
Nervine
Substance that soothes nervous excitement
Nervous System
System in the body that is comprised of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, ganglia and parts of the receptor organs that receive and interpret stimuli and transmit impulses to effector organ
Nest
An isolated collection or clump of cells in tissue of a different structure such as a nest of sarcomatous cells in the liver
Nettle
Urtica Dioica–Diuretic properties. Used for the treatment of urinary retention brought on by benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH). Adverse effects from consuming nettle tea can range from upset stomach to burning sensations in the skin, difficulty in urination and bloating. This herb is wonderful and works wonders!
Neural
Nerve related
Neuralgia
Severe recurrent pain along one or more nerves, usually not associated with changes in the nerve structure
Neuritis
Nerve inflammation
Neurodermatitis
Skin damage caused by scratching
Neurogenic
Originating from damage to the supplying nerves
Neuroleptanalgesia
Altered awareness of pain due to drugs
Neuromuscular
Muscle and nerve related
Neurotoxic
Destructive to nerve tissue
Neurotransmitter
Chemical released by nerve endings
Neutralization
Blocking of virus infection by antibodies; also, an assay which measures this
Neutropenia
Low white blood cell count
Neutrophils
The larger and physiologically most numerous class of infection-fighting white blood cells, characteristically even more numerous in generalized bacterial infections
Neutrophils, Segmented
Neutrophils are the larger and physiologically most numerous class of infection-fighting white blood cells, characteristically even more numerous in generalized bacterial infections; segmentation signifies cell division, so a high segmented neutrophil count implies vigorous response
ng
Nanogram (=millimicrogram)
NG
Nasogastric
NG Tube
Abbreviation for a nasogastric tube
NHANES
National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
NHLBI
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Niacin
Nicotinic Acid. A B vitamin essential for energy production in cells. The recommended daily allowance is about 14 mg for adult females and about 18 mg for adult males. Improves circulation and reduces the cholesterol level in the blood, maintains the nervous system, helps metabolize protein, sugar & fat, reduces high blood pressure, increases energy through proper utilization of food, prevents pellagra, and helps maintain a healthy skin, tongue & digestive system. A deficiency of niacin may result in bad breath, canker sores, headaches, fatigue, gastrointestinal disturbance, insomnia, irritability, loss of appetite, mental depression, muscular weakness, nervousness, pellagra, skin disorders, indigestion, and vague aches & pains
NIAAA
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Niacinamide
B3–See Niacin
NIAID
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases
NICHD
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
NIDA
National Institute on Drug Abuse
NIDDK
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Niemann-Pick Disease
An error in lipid metabolism that is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, is characterized by accumulation of phospholipid in macrophages of the liver, spleen, lymph glands, and bone marrow, and leads to gastrointestinal disturbances, malnutrition, enlargement of the spleen, liver, and lymph nodes, and abnormalities of the blood-forming organs
NIH
National Institutes of Health–The primary biomedical research facility/institution of the federal government and in the world
Nil
None
Nitrogen
Colorless, odorless, gaseous element forming about 47 % of the earth¹s atmosphere. In the combined form the element is a constituent of all proteins
Nitrogen Excretion
Removal of excess nitrogen from the cell
Nitrosamine
Chemical that may be formed from the metabolism of nitrates which are common preservatives used in processed foods
NJ
Nasojejunal
NK
Natural killer cell, a type of immune cell
nm
Nanometer (=millimicron)
NOB
Neutralization Of Binding
Nocturnal Pain
Pain that occurs during the night
Node
Protuberance or Swelling. Knot
Nodule
Small node, as of body tissue. Small knob like outgrowth, (such as a tumorous growth or a calcification near an arthritic joint). A small mass of rounded or irregular shape. The nodulus of the cerebellum
Non-A non-B Hepatitis
The old term for hepatitis shown not to be caused by the A&B viruses. In 1988, this form of hepatitis was shown to be mainly caused by HCV
Noncompliance
Failure to follow the instructions of one’s health care providers, such as not taking medicine as prescribed or not showing up for clinic visits. (a person can be denied a transplant on these grounds)
Non-direct Transmission
A mode of transmission that differs in some mysterious way from indirect transmission
Non-Essential
Can be manufactured by the body with proper nutrition
Noninvasive
Term used to describe procedures that do not require any injection into or surgical penetration of the body
Nonlinear
Not linear
Non-linkage
Non-linkage describes the inheritance patterns for 2 genes on the same chromosome, when the expected frequency for crossover between the loci is at least one. The observed inheritance patterns for non-linked genes on the same chromosome is the same as for 2 genes on different chromosomes
Nonobstructive Jaundice
Any jaundice in which the main biliary passages are not obstructed, e.g., hemolytic jaundice or jaundice due to hepatitis
Nonresponder
Patients who do not respond positively to therapy
Non-Secretor
A person who does not secrete their blood type antigen into their secretions. About 15% of the population are non secretors. Several correlations to disease (including rheumatic heart disease and alcoholism) have been linked to non-secretor status
Non Specific Resistance
Resistance to infection and the invasion of foreign matter through generalised measures; such as the barrier provided by skin and mucosa
Normotensive
With normal blood pressure
Norepinephrine
A chemical transmitter, naturally occurring in nerves, and used in synthetic form to sustain blood pressure
Normal Saline
Salt solution at the same concentration as in the body fluids
Nosocomial
Disease contracted in hospital
Nosocomial Infection
New disorder not relating to pre-existing condition acquired during a patients treatment while in the hospital. i.e. Patient who receives a blood transfusion and is infected with hepatitis
Notifiable Disease
Diseases, usually of an infectious nature, whose occurrence is required by law to be made known to a health officer or local government authority
Novel Liver-Specific Transport Protein
Liver protein located on the sinusoidal domain of the plasma membrane
NPO
Abbreviation for nothing by mouth (from the Latin Nil peros)
NS
Abbreviation for normal saline solution
NSAID
Non Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; ibuprofen and naproxen which are used in the treatment of pain
Nuclear Atypia
Pathological variation in the histological appearance of the central portion of body cells
Nuclear Membrane
Ordered membrane interface regulating the exchange of material between the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cell
Nucleic Acid
Chemical compounds of the utmost biologic importance, contained in all living organisms in the form of RNA and DNA; consists mainly of sugar moiety, phosphoric acids and nitrogenous bases
Nucleocapsids
Core of a virus, including the protein coat and the genetic material contained inside, core of a virus particle consisting of the genome plus a complex of proteins
Nucleocapsid Protein, Hepatitis Virus
Formerly SY to NM (viral N protein) till 1996; NM promoted to HM
Nucleoside
A compound (as adenosine or guanosine) that consists of a purine or pyrimidine base combined with deoxyribose or ribose and is found especially in DNA or RNA
Nucleosomes
Basic structural unit of eukaryotic chromosome forming “beads on a string.”
Nucleotide
One of the compounds into which nucleic acid splits on hydrolysis, consisting of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and a phosphate group. Joined to a purine or pyrimidine base and to a phosphate group and that are the basic structural units of RNA and DNA
Nucleus
Generally oval protoplasmic body in the center of the cell which contains the genetic material and is surrounded by a nuclear membrane; an essential organelle that controls growth, metabolism, and reproduction
Nummular
Coin-like
Nutmeg Liver
A liver appearing mottled like a nutmeg when cut because of congestion and associated with impaired circulation especially from heart or lung disease
Nutraceutical
Foods or food-derived substances in extracted form that have proven medicinal and health benefits
NV
Nausea, Vomiting
N&V
Nausea & Vomiting
NVD
Nausea, Vomiting & Diarrhea
NX
Unknown degree of lymph node involvement in a malignant process

© Vikki Shaw