The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – O

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O
Obese
Oat
Also called Wild Oat. Used mainly for its nutritional value and treating gastronenteritis and dyspepsia. Oat extract and tincture are useful as nerve and uterine tonics. A tea made from oat straw has been recommended for chest problems. Has been used effectively as an antispasmodic, nervine, and stimulant
Observer Variation
Failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer’s missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material)
Obstipation
Severe constipation
Obstruction
Blockage or clogging of a duct,vessel, etc., prevents solids or liquids from flowing through the area and results in a buildup of pressure above the obstruction
Obtund
To render a sensation less acute, to reduce the level of alertness
Occlusion
Closing, act of closure or state of being closed; an obstruction or a closing off
Occult
Concealed
Occult Bleeding
Hidden bleeding. Bleeding that is not visible on gross inspection
OCG
Oral Cholecystogram
Octacosanol
The active ingredient in wheat germ oil. Used to increase endurance, stamina & vigor
Odds Ratio
A comparison of the presence of a risk factor for disease in a sample of diseased subjects and non diseased controls. The number of people with disease who were exposed to a risk factor (Ie) over those with disease who were not exposed (Io) divided by those without disease who were exposed (Ne) over those without who were not exposed (No). Thus OR=(Ie/Io)/(Ne/No)= Ie No / Io Ne. This measure should be used for case control studies where we retrospectively look at risks in those with and without disease. Also known as exposure odds ratio
OI
Opportunistic Infection
Olfactory
Pertaining to the sense of smell
Oligoelement
Trace element
Oliguria
Abnormally small urine output
Olive
Olive oil is useful externally for bruises, burns, insect bites, sprains, and intense itching (pruritus). Olive oil taken internally increases the secretion of bile and acts as a laxative by encouraging muscular contraction in the bowels. It is also soothing to mucous membranes. The leaves are used as an antiseptic, astringent, febrifuge, and tranquilizer
OMAR
Office of Medical Applications of Research
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Constituents of fish oils that may protect against heart attacks by thinning the blood. Also acts as anti-inflammatory agent. Because of its effect on blood clotting, you should avoid fish oil supplements if you are taking any type of anti-coagulant drug
Oncologist
Doctor who specializes in treating cancer
Oncolytic
Cancer treatment related
Oncotic
Swelling related
O Neg
Type O, Rhesus negative blood; also called universal donor blood since any human can receive O negative blood without complication
Opalescent
Opal like
Open-Label Study/Trial
The opposite of a double-blind trial. In open label trials, the effectiveness of a treatment is determined with full knowledge of whether or not the patient is taking the medication. Because the expectations of the investigator and patient can subtlely influence the results of such trials, they are considered less useful than double blind trials
Opisthorchiasis
Infection of the biliary tract by the liver flukes Opisthorchis felineus and O. viverrini. When seen in heavy infections, local injury to the distal bile capillaries and surrounding liver tissue develops; in severe infections, there may be cirrhosis of the liver with areas of necrosis and fatty degeneration
Opisthorchis
The type genus of the family Opisthorchiidae including several trematodes that are casual or incidental parasites of the human liver
OPO
Organ Procurement Organization
Opportunistic
Disease usually excluded by body defenses
Oral Antibiotics
Medications administered as a capsule, pill, tablet, or liquid in the treatment of a bacterial infection
Oral Cholecystogram
Gallbladder x-ray. The procedure is designed to test the function of the gallbladder and to detect gallstones. X-rays are taken of the gallbladder after a patient swallows a contrast agent such as a barium meal
Orally
By Mouth
Oregon Grape Root
Has a proven strong bacteriacidal effect. Used for treating the mucous membranes, especially in cases of  uterine and vaginal infections. Has been shown effective against escherichia coli, staph, strep, and tuberculosis as well as curing a water borne disease called giardiasis
Organism
Any living entity
Organelles
Specialized cytoplasmic structure of a cell performing a specific function
Organ Mountain Crape
Mainly used in the treatment of chronic and scaly skin conditions such as eczema and psoriasis. Also used effectively in stomach and gallbladder conditions, especially when associated with nausea and vomiting. As a laxative, it may be safely used in chronic constipation
Organ Preservation
Between organ procurement and transplant, organs require special methods of preservation to keep them viable. The length of time that organs and tissues can be kept outside the body varies, depending on the organ, the preservation fluid and the temperature
Organ Procurement Organization
OPO–OPO’s serve as the integral link between the potential donor and recipient and are accountable for the retrieval, preservation and transportation of organs for transplantation. All OPOs are UNOS members
Organ Rejection
An attempt by the immune system to reject or destroy what it recognizes to be a foreign presence (i.e., a transplanted liver)
Orientation
Awareness of your environment
Ornithine
Nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. Manufactured from arginine and functions similarly to arginine, it stimulates the human growth hormone and is made by the digestion of proteins and some compounds made from arginine. The major difference between the two is that ornithine enters cell mitochondria. Arginine does not
Orthohepadnavirus
Genus of Hepadnaviridae causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks, and ground squirrels. It is also associated with human hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatitis B Virus is the type species
Osha
Ligusticum Porteri. Said to be an immune builder, helps the body stave off viral infections. Originally used to treat bronchial infections, colds and flu
Osmotic Fragility
Susceptibility, or lack of resistance, of erythrocytes to hemolysis when exposed to increasingly hypotonic saline solutions
Osteitis
Inflammation of the bone
Osteochondritis
Inflammation of both bone and cartilage
Osteolysis
Bone dissolving
Osteomalacia
Bone softening
Osteomyelitis
Bone inflammation
Ostomy
General term pertaining to any operation in which an artificial opening is formed. Usually refers to an opening in the abdomen for the discharge of urine or stool
Oswego Tea
Also called Bee Balm, Blue Balm, High Balm, Low Balm, Monarda, Mountain Balm, and Mountain Mint. Used mainly as a stomach remedy, to relieve flatulence, nausea, and vomiting. Also used effectively as a carminative, rubefacient, and stimulant
OTC
Over The Counter
OURQ
Outer Upper Right Quandrant
Overdispersion
See Aggregation
Oxamic Acid
Amino-substituted glyoxylic acid derivative
Oxidant
Compound that donate electrons to other compounds
Oxidation
Adding oxygen, chemical reaction in which electrons from one reactant (reducing agent) are transferred to the other reactant (oxidizing agent); the atoms in the element in the losing electrons increase their valence correspondingly
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Synthesis of ATP through various reactions whereby energy for the cell is obtained
Oxygen Saturation
The amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin in the blood, expressed as a percentage of the maximal binding capacity
Oxymel
Preparation containing honey, water, and vinegar, used as an expectorant, usually five parts honey, one part water, and one partvinegar
oz
Ounce

© Vikki Shaw