The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – S

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Sage
Sage has been shown to soothe sore throats, fight diabetes, control perspiration, and aids in digestion. If inflammation of the lips and the lining of the mouth occur from ingestion of sage tea, discontinue use
Sago Liver
One affected with amyloid degeneration, the acini resembling boiled sago grains, i.e., translucent granules 2 or 3 mm in diameter
Saline Solution
A blood volume substitute made of salt and water, a temporary substitute for lost blood
Salivary Glands
The salivary glands include the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. They produce enzymes that aid in the breakdown of starches
Salve
Soothing or healing ointment
SaO2
Arterial oxygen saturation
Sandimmune®
Cyclosporin–an earlier formulation of cyclosporine. An immunosuppressive drug used with other immunosuppressive drugs, that acts specifically to inhibit helper T cells, thereby helping prevent the rejection of a transplanted organ. Sandimmune and Neoral are not bioequivalent and cannot be used interchangeably without physician supervision
Sarcoma
Tumor
SART
Standard Acid Reflux Test
Sarsaparilla
S. Aristolochiaefolia-Mexican. S. Refelii-Honduran. S. Febrifuga-Ecuadorian. All three types of sarsaparilla are species of the genus Smilax and belong to the family Smilacaceae. Contains saponins which are derived mainly from sarsapogenin and smilagenin. The plant is also used as a flavoring agent, often in soft drinks such as root beer. Sarsaparilla root attacks microbial substances in the blood stream, and neutralizes them. Used for coughs, hypertension, pleurisy, wounds, sore eyes, burns, and as a diuretic
Saturated Fat
Type of fat found in greatest amounts in foods from animals such as meat, poultry, and whole-milk dairy products like cream, cheese, ice cream, and milk . Other examples of saturated fat include butter, the marbling and fat along the edges of meat, and lard and the saturated fat content is high in some vegetable oils-like coconut, palm kernel, and palm oils. Saturated fat raises blood cholesterol more than anything else in the diet
Saw Palmetto Berry
Sarena Serrulata. A small palm tree with red berries which were used by Native American Indians to ease certain ailments. The red berries contain high concentrations of plant sterols, including B-sistosterol, which act as anti-inflammatory agents. The berries provide a variety of fatty acids and phytosterols which inhibit the action of dihydrotestosterone, the compound thought to be responsible for the enlargement of the prostate. Used for treating the prostate
SB
Serum Bilirubin, Small Bowel
SBE
Subacute Bacterial Endocarditis
SBFT
Small Bowel Follow Through
SBO
Small Bowel Obstruction
SBP
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
s.c.
Subcutaneous(ly)
SCFA
Short Chain Fatty Acid
Schizandra
Schizandra Chinensis. Western herbalists commonly recommend Schizandra for the lungs, liver and kidneys, and to help with depression due to adrenergic exhaustion. In Russia, Schizandra is used to treat eye fatigue and increase acuity. Schizandra should not be used during pregnancy except under medical supervision to promote uterine contractions during labor. Schizandra should be avoided by persons with peptic ulcers, epilepsy and high blood pressure
Sclera
Dense white coat of eyeball
Scleriasis
Induration, especially of edge of eyelid
Sclerosis
Hardening
Screening
Analyzing blood for all known diseases
Scutellariae
Scutellaria Lateriflora. (S. Baicalensis. S. Galericulata. S. Scordiifolia. Species of the plant Scullcap which has four different species of Scutellariae that have been employed in medicine. Said to have tranquilizing and antispasmodic effects. S. lateriflora is a member of the family Lamiaceae and the overground parts of this plant are known as Scullcap
Sea Holly
Sea Holly exhibits aromatic, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and stimulant properties. The roots are also considered good in obstructions of the liver and in jaundice, operating as a diuretic and a good restorative
sec
Second
Second Generation Hepatitis C Antibody Tests
These were developed after 1992 and search for more specific ‘signs’ of the hepatitis C virus. Because these tests identify more parts of the antibody, they are more sensitive and specific than the original first generation tests
Secondary Lobule
A unit made up of 6 primary lobules with the terminal hepatic vein in the center and 6 portal tracts at the periphery, and bordered by terminal portal venules. In 2 dimensions, it corresponds to the classic lobule
Secretin
An intestinal proteinaceous hormone capable of stimulating secretion by the pancreas and liver
Secretor
A person who secretes the ABO antigen into their body secretions. A secretor could be blood typed from semen, perspiration or saliva. About 85% of the general population are secretors
Sedative
Agent that tends to tranquilize, calm, allay nervousness or irritation
Sed Rate
Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, a red blood count used to determine inflammation and tissue destruction
Sedimentation Rate
Sedimentation rate, or erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), is a type of blood test. It is performed by placing blood containing an anticoagulant in a long, narrow glass tube and observing the speed at which the red blood cells settle and form a sediment at the bottom. Abnormally slow sedimentation rates occur in the presence of any serious infection, malignancy, or inflammatory disorder. The test does not diagnose any particular disorder, but indicates that one might be present
SEIR Model
A class of compartmental prevalence models, with compartments Susceptible, Latent (Exposed), Infectious and Recovered
Selenium
Essential mineral involved primarily in enzymes that are antioxidants. Three selenium containing enzymes are antioxidant peroxidases and a fourth selenium containing enzyme is involved in thyroid hormone production. The prostate contains a selenium-containing protein and semen contains relatively large amounts of selenium. Selenium is important in lowering the risk of several types of cancers and diseases of the heart & blood vessels. Increased Selenium intake decreases the risk of breast, colon, lung and prostate cancer. It also preserves tissue elasticity; slows down the aging & hardening of tissues through oxidation, and helps in the treatment & prevention of dandruff.Selenium toxicity can occur if administered improperly, so the dose of selenium should be close to 100 Microgram (not milligrams) per day
Self Administration
Therapy that patients give to themselves, such as interferon injections instead of a healthcare provider doing it for them
Senna
An ingredient in many laxatives. Senna has a terrible taste. Herbalists generally discourage using the plant material and instead recommend the over the counter laxatives that contain Senna. Large doses can cause diarrhea, nausea and severe abdominal cramping that can lead to dehydration. Senna should never be used for more than two weeks. Never give to children under 2 years of age
(+)sense RNA (plus-sense RNA)
A virus with a single-stranded RNA genome of the same polarity (‘sense’) as mRNA
(-)sense RNA (minus-sense RNA)
A virus with a single-stranded RNA genome of the opposite polarity (‘sense’) as mRNA
Sense Strand
Most genetic material, both DNA and RNA, appears as two chains or strands of nucleotides wound together into a double helix . The common picture of DNA. Each nucleotide – A, T, C and G – has an attractive opposite (C attracts G, A attracts T). As a result, one strand, the “sense” strand, contains the information (for example, ATG-AAA) and the other strand, the “antisense” strand contains the opposite of this information (TAC-TTT according to the pairing rules). Antisense RNA is the “antisense” half of a complete double RNA strand. RNA viruses consist of two types, “sense” RNA viruses, whose genetic material consists of the “sense” half of a complete strand, and “antisense” RNA viruses, which have the “antisense” half. Sense RNA viruses can have their genetic material read out directly by the ribosomes of their host cells – antisense RNA viruses must first copy themselves into a “sense” strand of RNA
Sensitivity
The ability of a test to work on people you know have the infection. More precisely TP/(TP+FN), where TP is the number of true positives and FN is the number of false negatives
Sensitized
Being immunized, or able to mount an immune response, against an antigen by previous exposure to that antigen
Sensory
Sense-related
Sepsis
A serious blood-borne bacterial infection of the blood. More common in the elderly and in neonates. Symptoms include chills, decreased urine output, high fever, and a decreased level of consciousness
Septum
Dividing wall
Sequelae
Complication
Serine
L-Serine. A nonessential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. A storage source of glucose by the liver and muscles; helps strengthen the immune system by providing antibodies, synthesizes the fatty acid sheath around nerve fibers
Seroconversion
Development of resistance
Serological
Blood study related
Serological Testing
The process of scientifically examining blood serum
Serology
The study of antigen-antibody reactions. More generally, the use of serotype data to infer an individual’s history of infection
Seronegative
When one tests negative for a particular test. ie. Being tested for Hepatitis and the results are negative
Seropositive
When one tests postive for a particular test. ie. Being tested for Hepatitis and the test results are postive. An individual whose serotype suggests that they have experienced infection in the past
Seroprevalence
The proportion of a population who are seropositive
Serotonin
A necessary brain chemical. One of the four main neuro-humors or neuro-transmitters in higher vertebrate nervous systems. Serotonin is transported via the bloodstream to the nerve cells throughout the body, but most especially in the neurons of the brain. Here they accumulate in their minute molecular form. The molecule serotonin is utilized by the nerve cells for the complete execution of electrical impulses across the synaptic gap. Serotonin is produced in the gut of the intestinal tract as well as the Pineal organ. Serotonin will convert naturally to melatonin, which occurs chemically in the pineal gland. The pineal gland is the only area in the body where this is done. Research has demonstrated a strong link between appetite, mood, pain awareness, sleep and Serotonin. Abnormalities in the amount of Serotonin available to the brain have been linked with Aggression, Anxiety, Alcohol abuse, Depression, Drug abuse, Eating disorders, particularly bulimia and binge eating, as well as some forms of obesity, Headaches, including Migraines, Irritability, Insomnia and other sleep disorders, Mood swings and Mania, Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) especially moodiness & food cravings, Obsessive compulsive behavior, Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), Poor impulse control, and heightened sensitivity to pain
Serotype
The range of antibodies which an individual possesses, usually based on sampling from blood serum or saliva. Different strains of a pathogen can sometimes be distinguished by the different antibodies they induce in a host, or with which they can be made to react in vitro; thus the word serotype has also come to be applied to a particular strain (`the virulent serotype’). This is the more common clinical usage. The range of antibodies used to define a serotype obviously depends on those available to the researcher. Sometimes, as for measles, the presence of a known antibody within the serum of an individual correlates extremely well with the clinical observation that that individual is protected against any further infections. But sometimes, as for malaria, there is as yet no definite relationship between a given serotype and the presence of a functional immunity, which may make the use of the word serotype unhelpful when trying to distinguish between different parasites for the purposes of understanding transmission
Serous
Of or relating to, producing, or resembling serum; having a thin watery constitution
Serum
Fluid portion of blood
Serum Amylase Enzyme Test
Test for pancreatitis
Serum Hepatitis
Form of viral hepatitis transmitted by exposure to human blood or blood products contaminated with hepatitis viruses, or injection
Sexual Transmission
The passage of infection from one individual to another thru sex. The sexual route can include all sexual activities, although the level of infection risk is higher for certain behaviors
SGOT
See AST
SGPT
See ALT, An enzyme that is found primarily in the liver. It is released into the bloodstream as the result of liver damage. Also called the alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT)
Sharps Container
Specially designed receptacle for the safe disposal of needles
Shavegrass
Also known as Horsetail. Supplies calcium to the body, and is rich in several other minerals that the body uses to rebuild injured tissue. Research shows that Shavegrass increases the number of phagocytes (enzymes that kill germs and other foreign substances), which improves the functioning of the entire immune system. Used to treat Bronchitis, lung and respiratory tract disorders. Externally, Shavegrass can be applied as a poultice
Sheep Sorrel
Also called Common Sorrel. Used as an astringent, diuretic, and laxative agent. Tea made from the leaves and stem will act as a diuretic, and may be helpful for stones. Tea made from the leaves and flowers of this plant can provide effective relief for throat and mouth ulcers. Externally, this herbal ingredient is effective in treating various skin conditions. A decoction made from the root has been used successfully to treat excessive menstruation and hemorrhage in the stomach
Shepherd’s Purse
Reduces urinary tract irritation and atony. Clears up blood in the urine, and may eliminate mild forms of hemorrhage. Is effective in treating menorrhagia characterized by lengthy and frequent almost-colorless flow
Shingles
Infection of the ganglia of the posterior roots of the spinal nerves or the fifth cranial nerve by the varcella-zoster virus, which also causes chicken pox; it is marked by a painful eruption of vesicles usually on one side of the body along the course of one or more cutaneous nerves
Shiitake Mushroom
Lentinus Edodes. Also known as Japanese mushroom. Builds resistance against viruses, helps control cholesterol level, for preventing high blood pressure and heart disease, and fighting diseases such as cancer. Research suggests that lentinan may work by enhancing the immune system’s ability to fight infection
Shock
A circulatory disturbance marked by a severe drop in blood pressure, rapid pulse, clammy skin, pallor, and a rapid heart rate
Shunt
Bypass
SI
International System of Units
Sialagogue
Agent that produces a flow of saliva
Sida Cordifolia
Contains ephedrine alkaloids common to the Ephedra plant (also known as Ma-Huang). Sida Cordifolia contains other bronchodilating principles which Ma-Huang does not have, these are vasicinone, vasicine, and vasicinol. Considered to have diaphoretic, diuretic, central nervous system stimulating and anti-asthmatic activity. Useful in the treatment of chronic broncho-pulminary conditions characterized by bronchospasm and cough. Also used to treat bronchial asthma cold & flu, aching joints and bones, chills, lack of perspiration, headache, nasal congestion, cough & wheezing, and edema
Side Effects
Drugs and herbal therapies may produce both desirable and undesirable effects. The undesirable effects are referred to as side effects. They can often be reduced by reducing the dosage of the drug or using a purer formulation
Siderophores
Low-molecular-weight compounds produced by microorganisms that aid in the transport and sequestration of ferric iron
SIF
Serum Inhibitory Factors
Sigmoid
S-shaped
Sigmoidoscope
Rigid or flexible endoscope used to look into the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon
Sign
Any evidence of disease
Silent Gallstones
Gallstones that cause no symptoms and are discovered by  ultrasound, x-ray, or surgery
Silicon
Non-essential mineral. Tissues such as arteries,  connective tissue, skin, tendons, cornea and sclera (white of the eye) contain relatively large amounts of silicon. Collagen, the protein glue that holds us together, contains silicon in silanolate form. While vitamin C functions only as a catalyst in the formation of collagen, silicon is actually a structural part of collagen. Silicon containing substances are found in all cartilage and in the material binding cells together. Silicon may be needed for proper bone structure and growth
Sinusoid
A minute endothelium lined space or passage for blood in the tissues of an organ such as the liver
Situs Inversus
A congenital abnormality characterized by lateral transposition of the viscera, such as of the heart or the liver)
Skullcap
Some herbalists strongly recommend it for the relief of headache and related pain, while others do not.  Used to treat convulsions, insomnia, nervous diseases, neuralgia, restlessness and tetanus. Has also been recommended for delirium tremens, neuralgia, and rheumatism. American Indians used the plant to promote menstruation, and it was reputed to be effective against rabies
Skunk Cabbage
Exhibits anti-spasmodic, diaphoretic, and expectorant properties. Used to relax and ease irritable coughs. Can also be used to treat asthma, bronchitis and whooping cough. As a diaphoretic, it will aid the body during fevers
SLE
Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
Slippery Elm
Also called American elm, Indian elm, Moose elm, Red elm, Rock elm, Sweet elm, and Winged elm. Used as a demulcent, diuretic, and emollient. Is very effective, both internally and externally (in poultices), against sore & inflamed mucous membranes, considered one of the best agents for combating coughs.
SMAC 25
A blood chemistry panel, often used as a general screening tool, which includes measurement of sodium, potassium, chloride, C02, creatinine, BUN, glucose, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), glutamic pyruvic transpeptidase (SGPT) (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), cholesterol, triglycerides, amylase, lactic acid, and magnesium in the blood
Small Bowel Enema
Diagnostic procedure in which a tiny tube is passed through the mouth or nose and placed in the upper part of the small intestine. A small amount of barium liquid is injected through the tube and observed on a fluoroscope as it passes through the small intestine
Small Bowel Follow Through
Diagnostic procedure in which x-rays are taken of the small intestine as the barium liquid passes through it
Small Intestine
Largest part of the digestive tube that connects the stomach to the large intestine. The small intestine is divided into the duodenum, ileum and jejunum, and is the site where most of the digestion and food absorption occurs
SOD
Superoxide Dismutase. An antioxidant enzyme which helps protect cells from free-radical damage
Sodium
Essential mineral that our bodies regulate and conserve. Excess sodium retention increases the fluid volume (edema) and low sodium leads to less fluid and relative dehydration. The adult body averages a total content of over 100 grams of sodium, of which one-third is in bone. A small amount of sodium does get into cell interiors, but this represents only about 10% of the body content. The remaining 57 % or so of the body sodium content is in the fluid immediately surrounding the cells, where it is the major cation (positive ion). The role of sodium in the extracellular fluid is maintaining osmotic equilibrium (the proper difference in ions dissolved in the fluids inside and outside the cell) and extracellular fluid volume. Also involved in nerve impulse transmission, muscle tone and nutrient transport. Interelated to potassim. Increase in serum sodium is seen in conditions with water loss in excess of salt loss, as in profuse sweating, severe diarrhea or vomiting, polyuria (as in diabetes mellitus or insipidus), hypergluco- ormineralocorticoidism, and inadequate water intake. Drugs causing elevated sodium include steroids with mineral ocorticoid activity, carbenoxolone, diazoxide, guanethidine, licorice, methyldopa, oxyphenbutazone, sodium bicarbonate, methoxyflurane, and reserpine. Decrease in sodium is seen in states characterized by intake of freewater or hypotonic solutions, as may occur in fluid replacement following sweating, diarrhea, vomiting, and diuretic abuse. Dilutional hyponatremia may occur in cardiac failure, liver failure, nephrotic syndrome, malnutrition, and SIADH. There are many other causes of hyponatremia, mostly related to corticosteroid metabolic defects or renal tubular abnormalities. Drugs other than diuretics may cause hyponatremia, including ammonium chloride, chlorpropamide, heparin, amino glutethimide, vasopressin, cyclophosphamide, and vincristine
soln
Solution
Soluble
Adjective describing a substance that is able to be dissolved in or as if in a fluid
Solu-medrol
Methylprednisolone, a form or prednisone, an adrenal corticosteroid, a powerful steroid
Somatic
Body related. Any of the cells of the body that compose the  organs, tissues, and parts of that individual other than the germ cells
Somatomedin
Any of several endogenous peptides produced especially in the liver that are dependent on and probably mediate growth hormone activity
Somnolence
Sleepiness
Soporific
Sleep inducing
Sorrel
Also called Common sorrel, Garden sorrel, Meadow sorrel, and Sourgrass. Used as an astringent, diuretic, and laxative. A decoction made from it has been used for hemorrhage in the stomach and for excessive menstruation.Consuming large quantities of sorrel can irritate the kidneys and produce mild to severe poisoning
Spasmolytic
Anti-spasm
Spasticity
Muscle rigidity
Specific
Agent or remedy having a particular effect on a particular disease
Specific Resistance
Describes the ability of the body to respond to specific invading agents. Also known as immunity
Specificity
The ability of a test to fail on people you know don’t have the infection. More precisely TN/(TN+FP), where TN is the number of true negatives and FP is the number of false positives
sp gr
Specific Gravity
Sphincter
Ringlike band of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural body opening
Sphingomyelin
Any of a group of crystalline phosphatides that are obtained especially from nerve tissue and that on hydrolysis yield a fatty acid, Sphingosine, Choline, and Phosphoric acid
Sphingomyelinase
Any of several enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin and are lacking in some metabolic deficiency diseases (as Niemann-Pick disease) in which sphingomyelin accumulates in bodily organs such as the spleen and liver
Sphingosine
An unsaturated amino compound containing two hydroxyl groups and obtained by hydrolysis of various sphingomyelins, gangliosides and cerebrosides
Spider Angiomas
Red capillary tufts in the skin that blanch on pressure; often found in patients with cirrhosis
Spirit
Alcohol or water-alcohol solution of medicinal substances, usually 10% alcohol: essence
Spirulina
Used for health rejuvenation and weight reduction, considered an excellent blood & colon cleanser. Spirulina is very high in Vitamin B-12 content
Spleen
A part of lymphatic system, helps filter blood of bacteria and impurities. Organ located in the upper left abdomen. Stores red blood cells as well as other blood cells. Spleen can enlarge if a person has cirrhosis
Splenectomy
Surgical removal of the spleen
Splenic Flexure Syndrome
Gaseous distention in the left, upper portion of the colon leading to left, upper abdominal discomfort, which may radiate to the left chest and be confused with heart disease
Splenohepatomegaly
Abnormal enlargement of the spleen and the liver
Splenomegaly
Spleen enlargement
Sporadic
Random
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP):
Bacterial infection of ascitic fluid
sq
Square
Squaw Vine
Used extensively to treat several uterine difficulties, including painful menstruation and threat of miscarriage
ST
Stable Toxin, Stomach
Stage
A period or phase of disease characterized by certain symptoms. A condition in the course of a disease
Stasis
Keeping in check. A slowing or stopping of blood flow
Stasis Cirrhosis
A general term for cirrhosis due to obstruction of the outflow of the hepatic vein; see also cardiac cirrhosis
Stasis Liver
The liver in stasis cirrhosis
Stat
From the Latin statinum, meaning immediately
Status
Indicates the degree of medical urgency for patients awaiting heart or liver transplants
STD
Sexually Transmitted Disease, disease that is transmitted through sexual contact
Steatohepatitis
Previous names that have been used to identify this syndrome include nonalcoholic Laennecis, fatty liver hepatitis, steatonecrosis, diabetic hepatitis, nonalcoholic fatty liver, etc
Steatorrhea
Condition in which there is too much fat in the stool, usually leading to loose, greasy, and odorous stools
Steatosis
Fatty degeneration
Stenosis
Duct narrowing. Pathologic narrowing of a body opening, a hollow tube, or the digestive tract
Sterile
Free of live microorganisms or live bacteria
Sternutatory
Substance causing sneezing
Steroid
Any of a large number of hormonal substances with a similar basic chemical structure containing a 17-carbon 14-ring system and including the sterols and various hormones and glycosides
Sterol
Large subgroup of steroids
Sterols
Alcohol form of a steroid
Stevia
A safe, all natural alternative to artificial sweeteners and refined sugar in the diet. Used for alleviating bleeding gums, sore throats and cold sores due to its mild anti-bacterial functions. Has also been shown to inhibit the development of plaque and aid in the prevention of cavities. There has also been some claims that Stevia functions as an anti-diabetic agent. Stevia extracts contain negligible nutritive benefits
Stillingia Root
Also called Cockup hat, Marcory, Queen’s delight, Queen’s root, Silver leaf, and Yaw root. Used as a cathartic, diuretic, and emetic. An effective treatment for both tuberculosis and cancer. In large doses, Stillingia causes vomiting and diarrhea. Taken internally, the acrid constituents of the fresh plant can cause irritation and symptoms of poisoning
Stimulant
Agent that temporarily quickens the functional activities of the tissues
St. John’s Wort
Hypericum Perforatum. Also called Goatweed, Hypericum and Klamath Wee. An aromatic perennial herb which has been used for centuries for a wide variety of conditions. The plant’s active compound, hypericin, has anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. Hypericin has also been shown to have monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibiting activity, mimicking the action of antidepressant agents. Research has shown that St. John’s Wort inhibits the growth of some strains of bacteria that are highly resistant to antibiotics, such as Staphylococcus aureus, enterococcus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. St. John’s Wort has also been reported to have anti viral activity against herpes simplex virus, influenza virus and hepatitis B virus
[Bulk St. John’s Wort Product]
Stochastic Model
A mathematical model which takes into consideration the presence of some randomness in one or more of its parameters or variables. The predictions of the model therefore do not give a single point estimate but a probability distribution of possible estimates. We might distinguish demographic stochasticity which arises from the discreteness of individuals and individual events such as birth, and environmental stochasticity arising from more-or-less unpredictable interactions with the outside world
Stoma
Artificial opening. such as an opening in the abdominal wall created by surgery
Stomach
Large, irregularly shaped sac that is found between the esophagus and the small intestine
Stone Root
Collinsonia Canadensis. Exhibits antispasmodic, astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, sedative, and tonic properties. A decoction of the fresh root has been given in catarrh of the bladder, dropsy, gravel and leucorrhoea. Can be used externally, especially the leaves, for poultices and fomentations on bruises, cuts, sores, wounds, and as a gargle
Stool
Feces; the waste matter discharged from the anus
Streptokinase
An enzyme that can break up and liquefy blood clots
Stricture
Narrowing of a hollow tube
Study Phase
Most clinical trials are designated as phase I, II, or III, based on the type of questions that study is seeking to answer:
In Phase I clinical trials, researchers test a new drug or treatment in a small group of people (20-80) for the first time to evaluate its safety, determine a safe dosage range, and identify side effects.
In Phase II clinical trials, the study drug or treatment is given to a larger group of people (100-300) to see if it is effective and to further evaluate its safety.
In Phase III studies, the study drug or treatment is given to large groups of people (1,000-3,000) to confirm its effectiveness, monitor side effects, compare it to commonly used treatments, and collect information that will allow the drug or treatment to be used safely.
These phases are defined by the Food and Drug Administration in the Code of Federal Regulations.
Styptic
Agent that contracts tissues, checks bleeding by contracting the blood vessels
Subacute
Somewhat acute. Falling between acute and chronic in character particularly when closer to acute. Less marked in duration or severity than a corresponding acute state
Subcapsular
Below a tough outer covering
Subcelluar
Below the level of a complete cell. Group or stock of microorganisms made up of descendents of a single isolation in a pure culture
Subclinical
Mild
Subclinical Infection
An infection in which symptoms are sufficiently mild or inapparent to escape diagnosis other than by positive confirmation of the ability to transmit the infection or serologically
Subcutaneous
Below or under the skin
Subdural
Outside the brain
Subhepatic
Situated or occurring under the liver
Sublingual
A medication that is taken by dissolving under the tongue
Sublobular
Situated at the bases of the lobules of the liver
Sublobular Vein
One of several veins in the liver into which the central veins empty and which in turn empty into the hepatic veins
Subphrenic Space
A space on each side of the falciform ligament between the underside of the diaphragm and the upper side of the liver
Subsequent Treatment
Treatment started again after a patient has not responded to treatment or relapsed
Substrate
Substance on which an enzyme acts
Sucralfate
Drug that forms a protective coating around the base of an ulcer
Sudorific
Agent that induces perspiration; diaphoretic
Sugar-Icing Liver
Perihepatitis chronica hyperplastica
Sulfasalazine
Medication combining a sulfa component with a drug in the aspirin family. Used to treat mild to moderate attacks of inflammatory bowel disease and to maintain a state of remission between attacks. Thought to be more effective when the disease is in the colon rather than in the ileum
Sulfur
Involved in bone growth, blood clotting, and muscle metabolism. It also helps to counteract toxic substances in the body by combining with them to form harmless compounds
Sulfobromophthalein
A diagnostic material used in the form of its disodium salt in a liver function test
Suma
Also known as Para Toda. Research has shown that five of the pfaffosides found in Suma have been able to inhibit growth of cultured melanoma tumor cells. Suma is advocated as an effective adaptogen to support the immune system, adapt the body to external stresses, accelerate wound healingfight chronic fatigue syndrome, and to relieve pain
Sunflower
Helianthus Annuus. The seeds have diuretic and expectorant properties and are used in the treatment of bronchial, coughs and colds, laryngeal and pulmonary affections, and whooping cough
Superinfection
Secondary infection
Supine
Laying down
Suppository
Tubular medicinal mass which melts when inserted into a body orifice thereby releasing its active ingredients
Suppuration
Discharging pus
Suprahepatic
Situated superior to or on the surface of the liver
Survival Rates
Survival rates indicate how many patients or grafts (transplanted organs) are alive/functioning at a set time posttransplant. Survival rates are often given at one, three and five years. Policy modifications are never made without examining their impact on transplant survival rates. Survival rates improve with technological and scientific advances. Developing policies that reflect and respond to these advances in transplantation will also improve survival rates
Susceptible
An individual accessible to or liable to infection by a pathogen
Sustained Response
Response to therapy that continues over a long period of time. i.e Patient who is successfully treated and remains free of the disease/virus for at least 6 months after treatment has stopped
Suture
Stitch
SVR
SustainedVvirological Response–See Sustained Response
Symptom
Noticeable change in the body or its function that indicate disease. A condition of the body reported by an individual when suffering from a disease; any evidence used in diagnosis or identification of infected individuals
Symptomatology
Study of symptoms
Synaptic
Relating to the association of homologous chromosomes with chiasma formation that is characteristic of the first meiotic prophase and is held to be the mechanism for genetic crossing-over
Synergist
Agent that increases the effectiveness of another agent when combined with it
Synergistic
Combined
Syringe
Medical instrument made up of a plunger, barrel and needle to inject fluids into the body
Syrup
Concentrated sugar solution with or without medicinal additives
Systemic
Whole body related
Systolic
Part of blood pressure reading. The top of the two blood pressure numbers, which measures the maximum blood pressure reached as blood is pumped out of the heart chambers
Synthesis
Formation of a new compound by putting together simpler compounds or elements

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