The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – T

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T3 Uptake
This test measures the amount of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) in the patient’s serum. When TBG is increased, T3 uptake is decreased, and vice versa. T3 Uptake does not measure the level of T3 or T4 in serum. Increased T3 uptake (decreased TBG) in euthyroid patients is seen in chronic liver disease, protein-losing states, and with use of the following drugs: androgens, barbiturates, bishydroxycourmarin, chlorpropamide, corticosteroids, danazol, d-thyroxine, penicillin, phenylbutazone, valproic acid, and androgens. It is also seen in hyperthyroidism. Decreased T3 uptake (increased TBG) may occur due to the effects of exogenous estrogens (including oral contraceptives), pregnancy, acute hepatitis, and in genetically determined elevations of TBG. Drugs producing increased TBG include clofibrate, lithium, methimazole, phenothiazines, and propylthiouracil. Decreased T3 uptake may occur in hypothyroidism
T4
See Thyroxine
TACE
Transarterial Chemo-Embolization, Transcatheter Hepatic Artery Chemoembolization
TAE
Transcatheter Hepatic Artery Chemoembolization
Tamarack
Larix Americana. The bark, used as a decoction, is a diuretic, laxative, tonic, and alterative, used in the treatment of obstructions of the liver, jaundice, rheumatism, and some cutaneous diseases. A decoction of the Tamarack leaves has been used for diarrhea, dysentery, hemoptysis, piles, and menorrhagia
Taurine
Nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. May be needed for the proper development and maintenance of the central nervous system. Taurine’s role in bile formation is important for fat metabolism and blood cholesterol control. Colorless crystalline cysteine derivative found in nerve tissue, in bile, and in the juices of muscle particularly in invertebrates. Helps stabilize the excitability of membranes which is important in the control of epileptic seizures
TB
Tuberculosis
TBG
Thyroxine-Binding Globulin
T Cell
Lymphocytes that are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus. Responsible for mediating the second branch of the immune system called “cellular immune response.” T cells can live for months to years. This lymphocyte population is defined by the presence of a rearranged T-cell receptor
T Cells
Cells that are involved in rejecting foreign tissue, controlling the production of antibodies in the presence of antigens, regulating immunity. One of the two major types of lymphocytes (white blood cells) There are two types of T-cells – “helper” T-cells and “killer” T-cells
TE
Tracheoesophageal
Tea
Camellia Thea. Considered to be a strong stimulant and astringent. Rarely used as a medicine, but, the infusion is useful to  help relieve neuralgic headaches
Tea Tree Oil
Also called Cajuput Oi. Used extensively as a anti-microbial, antiseptic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, and stimulant. Has also been used for colds, headaches, toothache, rheumatism, skin disorders and sore muscles
TEF
Tracheoesophageal Fistula
Telangiectasia
Broken veins
tid
Three times a day
T Lymphocyte
Mononuclear white blood cells having the property of destroying target cells. Thymus dependent cells, coordinate the cell-mediated immune system
Teratogenic
Causing malformations in a fetus
Term
Definition
Terminal Bile Duct
The smallest branch of the portal tract-based biliary system; corresponds to the bile duct seen in terminal portal tracts
Terminal Hepatic Artery
The smallest branch of the hepatic artery; corresponds to hepatic artery seen in terminal portal tracts
Terminal Hepatic Vein
The smallest branch of the hepatic venous system situated in the center of the secondary as well as the classic lobule; also called the central vein
Terminal Portal Tract
A mesenchyme-based structure containing 1 or more parallel sets of (bile duct and hepatic artery), and only 1 portal venous channel; the classic “portal triad.”
Terminal Portal Vein
The smallest branch of the portal vein that gives rise to portal venules. Corresponds to the portal vein seen in terminal portal tracts
Testing for Safety and Effectiveness
New drugs approved by the U.S. Government must not only be shown to be safe to use, but also to be effective at producing the desired effect. All candidate drugs must go through multiple phases of testing before they are approved. Early testing shows safety in animals and humans, while the later phases test for effectiveness and further confirm safety. This process is very expensive and may take many years. For this reason, many potential drugs remain untested
Testosterone
Naturally occurring androgenic hormone
Tetany
Muscle spasm
TF
Tube Feeding
Thalamus
Part of the brain
Therapeutic Range
Maximum effectiveness of a drug is generally found only for a narrow range of dosages. Below that range, the amount of drug in the body is too low to have the desired effect. Above that range, undesirable side effects or toxicity are produced. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range (e.g., digitoxin), are more dangerous than drugs with a large therapeutic range (i.e. vitamin C)
Therapy
Treatment of a disease
Thiamine
Vitamin B-1. A B-complex vitamin that acts as a coenzyme necessary for the conversion of carbohydrates into glucose, which is burned in the body for energy. It is essential for the functioning of the nervous system as well as the muscles and heart, aids in the digestion of carbohydrates; stabilizes the appetite; and promotes growth & good muscle tone. A deficiency of Thiamin may lead to the loss of appetite, insomnia, weakness, fatigue,  paralysis, nervous irritability, weight loss, minor aches & pains, mental depression & constipation, and heart & gastrointestinal problems
Thistle
Considered a diaphoretic, stimulant, tonic, emetic and emmenagogue. In large doses, Blessed Thistle acts as a strong emetic, producing vomiting with little pain and inconvenience. Also see Milk Thistle
Threonine–L
Threonine, Essential amino acid needed for proper growth in infants and maintenance of nitrogen balance in adults. Found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins. Helps prevents fat build-up in the liver; helps the digestive and intestinal tracts function more smoothly; and assists metabolism & assimilation
Thrill
A vibration that a doctor or nurse can feel by touch, often used to describe cardiac murmurs that can be felt through the chest wall
Thrombocytopenia
Low blood platelet count
Thrombocytosis
Increased platelets in the blood
Thromboembolism
Blood clotting
Thrombolytic
Dissolving blood clots
Thrombophlebitis
Vein inflammation plus blood clotting
Thrombosis
Blood clot
Thrombus
Blood clot
Thrush
Fungus infection in the mouth
Thyme
Also called Creeping thyme, Mountain thyme, and Wild thyme. Used as a anthelmintic, antispasmodic, carminative, diaphoretic, expectorant, and sedative. As a tincture, extract, or infusion, it is used for throat and bronchial problems, acute bronchitis, laryngitis, and whooping cough, diarrhea, chronic gastritis, and lack of appetite. Excessive internal use of Garden thyme can lead to symptoms of poisoning and to over stimulation of the thyroid gland
Thymidine
One of the four basic nucleotides comprise DNA
Thymidine Kinase
An enzyme that is involved in DNA replication and that increases greatly during infection with some viruses (as the herpesvirus causing herpes simplex) and during periods of increased growth rate, as in liver regeneration
Thymus
The lymphoid organ in which T lymphocytes are educated, mature and multiply
Thyrotoxicosis
Overactive thryoid
Thyroxine (T4)
This is a measurement of the total thyroxine in the serum, including both the physiologically active (free) form, and the inactive form bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). It is increased in hyperthyroidism and in euthyroid states characterized by increased TBG. Occasionally, hyperthyroidism will not be manifested by elevation of T4 (free or total), but only by elevation of T3 (triiodothyronine). Therefore, if thyrotoxicosis is clinically suspect, and T4 and FTI are normal, the test “T3 -RIA” is recommended (this is not the same test as “T3 uptake,” which has nothing to do with the amount of T3 in the patient’s serum). T4 is decreased in hypothyroidism and in euthyroid states characterized by decreased TBG. A separate test for “free T4” is available, but it is not usually necessary for the diagnosis of functional thyroid disorders
Thyroxine-Binding Globulin
A blood serum glycoprotein that is synthesized in the liver and that binds tightly to thyroxine and less firmly to triiodothyronine preventing their removal from the blood by the kidneys and releasing them as needed at sites of activity
Tincture
Alcoholic solution of medicinal substances, usually 50% alcohol
Tisane
An infusion of flowers
Tissue Typing
Blood test (performed prior to transplantation) to evaluate the closeness of tissue match between donor’s organ and recipient’s HLA antigens
Titre
Concentration of a substance in solution
TIW
Three times a week
TMV
Tobacco Mosaic Disease
Tobacco
Nicotiana Tabacum. Tobacco is used as a diuretic, discutient, expectorant, sedative, and sialagogue, and internally only as an emetic, when all other emetics fail. Externally the nicotine in tobacco is an antiseptic
Tobacco Mosaic Disease
First recognized viral disease, tobacco mosaic disease is caused by the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). It attacks tobbaco leaves, causing a mosaic-like pattern of discolorations in the plant
Tocopherol
Any of several fat soluble, oily, phenolic compounds with antioxidant vitamin E activity
Tocotrienol
Form of vitamin E that differs from tocopherols by possessing three double bonds in its side chain rather than being saturated. Tocotrienols have recently been isolated and have antioxidant capabilities greater than vitamins C and E and their tocopherol counterpart
Tomography
CT scanning
Tonic
Drug or medicine that improves body tone by stimulating tissue nutrition. Substance that invigorates, restores, or stimulates the system
Topical
Applied to the surface
Toradol
Ketorolac, an injectable nonsteroid antiinflammatory agent often used as a substitute for morphine in intoxicated patients or for those patients suspected of seeking narcotics
Total Parenteral Nutrition
TPN. Intravenous infusion of all nutrients through a catheter placed in a large vein near the collar bone. TPN is used to ensure that malnourished patients or severely ill receive adequate nutrition, to rest the bowel, or to prepare poorly nourished patients for surgery
Total Protein
Increase in serum total protein reflects increases in albumin, globulin, or both. Generally significantly increased total protein is seen in volume contraction, venous stasis, or in hypergammaglobulinemia. Decrease in serum total protein reflects decreases in albumin, globulin or both
Toxic Effects
The physiologic, physical, or laboratory manifestations or derangement’s that can be attributed to the presence of a substance within the body
Toxicity
Poisonousness
Toxicological
Poison study related
Toxic Threshold
The minimum dose of a medication or herbal remedy required to produce toxicity. This level is not always well- defined, as it may depend on the individual taking the treatment
Toxin
Any chemical that interferes with normal cell function. Toxins may be man- made (such as DDT), or made by plants (phytotoxins), fungi (mycotoxins), or bacteria. Many herbal remedies obtain their effect from low levels of phytotoxins
Toxoids
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins
Tox Screen
Toxicological analysis of the blood, ordered when a drug overdose is suspected and the drugs need to be identified
TPN
Total Parenteral Nutrition– can provide all or most of a patient’s nutrient requirements by intravenous means
Trace Element
Essential mineral that is essential to nutrition. Analytical chemists prefer to call minerals, trace elements and Nutritionists prefer to call minerals either minerals or trace minerals depending on the amount needed by the body
Trace Minerals
Minerals that occur in tiny amounts within the body. An aid in replacing electrolytes lost through heavy perspiration, diarrhea, and protect against toxic reaction and heavy metal poisoning.  They are essential in the effective assimilation and utilization of vitamins and other nutrients
Transaminase
Enzyme
Transaminases
Liver enzymes in the blood which can signal liver infection. The same as ALT and AST
Transcription
Constructing a mRNA molecule using a DNA molecule as a template; results in the transfer of genetic information to the mRNA.
Transcriptase
RNA polymerase; an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of RNA with DNA serving as a template, also known as RNA transcriptase
Transcortin
An alpha globulin produced in the liver that binds with and transports hydrocortisone in the blood
Transcutaneous
Through the skin
Transdermal
Through the skin
Transfusion
Introduction of whole blood or components of blood (platelets, plasma) from one person into the body of another
Transitory
Brief
Transmission
Passing of a disease or infection from one person to another. The process by which a pathogen passes from a source of infection to a new host. There are two major types: horizontal and vertical transmission. The majority of transmission processes operate horizontally
Transmission Chain
Illustration adapted from Dickinson & Gordon (1990) to show the necessary factors required for the transmission of viral hepatitis
Transmission Threshold
Occurs for a parasite when the basic reproductive rate Ro is equal to 1. Below this threshold level the disease is unable to maintain itself within the host population. Typically, for directly transmitted parasites there is a transmission threshold for the host population size
Transplantation
Implanting organs or tissue from one person to another
Treatment
Therapy, Administration or application of a remedy to a patient with an injury or disease
Triage
The system of prioritizing patients in an emergency situation in which there are a great number of injured or ill
Trichloroacetic Acid
CCI3COOH, Toxic, deliquescent, colorless crystals with a pungent aroma, used as a chemical intermediate and library reagent, and in medicine, pharmacy, and herbicides
Tricyclic
Drugs used to treat depression
Triglycerides
Lipids (fat-like substances) carried through the bloodstream to the tissues. The bulk of the body’s fat tissue is in the form of triglycerides, stored for later use as energy. We get triglycerides primarily from the fat in our diet. Markedly increased triglycerides (>500 mg/dL) usually indicate a nonfasting patient (i.e., one having consumed any calories within 12-14 hour period prior to specimen collection). If patient is fasting, hypertriglyceridemia is seen in hyperlipoproteinemia types I, IIb, III, IV, and V. Exact classification theoretically requires lipoprotein electrophoresis, but this is not usually necessary to assess a patient’s risk to atherosclerosis. Cholestyramine, corticosteroids, estrogens, ethanol, miconazole (intravenous), oral contraceptives, spironolactone, stress, and high carbohydrate intake are known to increase triglycerides. Decreased serum triglycerides are seen in abetalipoproteinemia, COPD, hyperthyroidism, malnutrition, and malabsorption states. Most important of three groups of neutral fats; the basic unit consists of a molecule of glycerol in ester bond with three molecules of fatty acid; it serves as the major storage form of fatty acids and is practically the exclusive constituent of adipose tissue
Tristis
Dull in color
Trivalent
With a valence of three
Trophic
Pertaining to the functions of nutrition, digestion and growth
Tropical Sprue
Condition of unknown cause in which abnormalities of the intestinal lining interfere with the normal absorption of food. Leads to excess fat in the stool. Characterized by anemia
Tropism
The ability of a virus to infect specific cell or tissue types
True-Positive
Test result that accurately gives a positive reading
Tryptophan
Essential amino acid. Natural relaxant and sleep aid due to its precursor role in serotonin (a neurotransmitter) synthesis. Along with tyrosine, it is used in the treatment of addictions. A natural relaxant, Tryptophan helps alleviate insomnia by inducing normal sleep; helps in the treatment of migraine headaches; helps the immune system; reduces anxiety & depression; helps reduce the risk of artery & heart spasms and works with Lysine in reducing cholesterol levels
TSH Test
Test is performed to assess the activity of the thyroid gland. It involves measuring the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood serum. TSH, which is secreted by the pituitary gland, stimulates the thyroid gland to produce hormones. A change in the level of TSH in the blood may signify a malfunctioning of the thyroid gland
TTH
Transfusion Transmitted Hepatitis
TTP
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
T Tube
Tube placed in the bile duct that allows bile to drain into a bag outside the body
Tubercular
Nodular
Tubules
Small tubes
Tumor
Swelling or enlargement of body tissue that performs no useful function. It can be either cancerous (malignant) or harmless (benign)
Turkey Rhubarb
Helps to improve appetite, increase salivary & gastric flow, and promotes healthy liver function & bile flow. Acts both as a laxative in cases of constipation, and as an astringent in cases of diarrhea
Turmeric
Contains Curcumin. Curcumin increases the secretion of bile by stimulating the bile duct. It also protects the liver by detoxification, stimulating the gall bladder and scavenging free radicals. With the help of the adrenal glands, it inhibits both platelet aggregation and the enzymes which induce inflammatory prostaglandins. Curcumin may also help break down fats and reduce cholesterol. Large doses not recommended in cases of acute bilious colic, obstructive jaundice, painful gallstones, and extremely toxic liver disorders
Type I Mortality
A mortality schedule in which all hosts are assumed to live for a fixed number of years equal to the life expectancy
Type II Mortality
A mortality schedule in which all hosts are assumed to die at a constant rate. This constant rate is equal to the inverse of the life expectancy
Type & Crossmatch
Blood typing to identify patient’s blood type
Tyramine
Amino acid synthesized in the body from the essential amino acid tyrosine that has a sympathomimetic action and is derived from tyrosin
Tyrosine
Nonessential amino acid but may be essential for individuals with certain diseases or nutritional concerns. May be important for neurotransmitter synthesis and mood regulation. May be useful for depression, allergies and addictive states. Tyrosine transmits nerve impulses to the brain; helps overcome depression; improves memory; increases mental alertness; and promotes the healthy functioning of the adrenal thyroid, and pituitary glands
Tyrosinemia
A rare inherited disorder of tyrosine metabolism that is characterized by abnormally high concentrations of tyrosine in the blood and urine with associated abnormalities especially of the liver and kidneys

© Vikki Shaw