Is it Possible to Become Infected with More Than One Genotype of Hepatitis C?
Superinfection is possible if risk behaviors (e.g., injection drug use) for Hepatitis C infection continue. A reasonable path for the highly mutable Hepatitis C virus, superinfection is when a cell previously infected by one virus becomes co-infected with a different strain of the virus. Unfortunately, viral superinfections are common causes of treatment resistance – where a previously effective therapy loses its efficacy. In addition, superinfections have been known to reduce the overall effectiveness of the immune response.
Through studies conducted on intravenous drug users (the largest single risk group for Hepatitis C), researchers concluded that Hepatitis C re-infection and superinfection are common among actively injecting drug users.
Rare cases of sexually transmitted Hepatitis C superinfection in HIV/Hepatitis C virus-co-infected patients with high-risk sexual behavior have been reported. The patients had chronic Hepatitis C and a history of sexually transmitted infections. No risk factors for Hepatitis C were found except unprotected anal sex with multiple casual male partners.
Hepatitis C-infected kidneys transplanted into Hepatitis C-infected recipients have been shown to cause superinfection.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention “Hepatitis C, FAQs for Health Professionals” http://www.cdc.gov/hepatitis/HCV/HCVfaq.htm#section1 Retrieved October 28, 2011
HCV Advocate “A Guide to Hepatitis C Treatment Side Effect Management” http://www.hcvadvocate.org/hepatitis/factsheets_pdf/Treatment_Side_effect_Guide.pdf Retrieved October 28, 2011
Hepatitis-Central.com “Hepatitis C Progress Hampered by Re-Infection and Superinfection” http://www.hepatitis-central.com/mt/archives/2009/05/hepatitis_c_pro_1.html Retrieved October 28, 2011
HIVand Hepatitis.com “Telaprevir Plus Standard Therapy Can Produce Hepatitis C Cure in Less Time” http://www.hivandhepatitis.com/hepatitis-c/hepatitis-c-topics/hcv-treatment/3235-telaprevir-plus-standard-therapy-can-produce-hepatitis-c-cure-in-less-time Retrieved October 28, 2011
Journal of General Virology “Hepatitis C virus superinfection of liver grafts: a detailed analysis of early exclusion of non-dominant virus strains” http://vir.sgmjournals.org/content/91/5/1183.short Retrieved October 28, 2011
Massage Today “What is Massage?” http://www.massagetoday.com/aboutmt/ Retrieved October 28, 2011
Mayo Clinic “Hepatitis C” http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/hepatitis-c/DS00097 Retrieved October 28, 2011
National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases “What I Need to Know About Hepatitis C” http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/hepc_ez/ Retrieved October 28, 2011
Official Journal of the International Aids Society “Sexually Transmitted Hepatitis C Virus Superinfection in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus co-infected men Who Have Sex With Men” http://journals.lww.com/aidsonline/fulltext/2008/03120/sexually_transmitted_hepatitis_c_virus.16.aspx Retrieved October 28, 2011
U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health “Hepatoprotective Properties of Silymarin” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21560654 Retrieved October 28, 2011
U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health “Milk Thistle in Liver Diseases: Past, Present, Future” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Milk%20thistle%20in%20liver%20diseases%20past%2C%20present%20and%20future Retrieved October 28, 2011
U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health “Multiple effects of silymarin on the hepatitis C virus lifecycle” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=multiple%20effects%20of%20silymarin%20on%20the%20hepatitis%20c%20virus%20lifecycle Retrieved October 28, 2011
U.S. National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health “Silybin and the Liver: from basic research to clinical practice” http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Silybin%20and%20the%20liver%3A%20from%20basic%20research%20to%20clinical%20practice Retrieved October 28, 2011
Vertex Pharmaceuticals "Medication Guide - Incivek™" http://pi.vrtx.com/files/usmedguide_telaprevir.pdf. Retrieved October 23, 2011.
Merck "Medication Guide - Victrelis™" http://www.merck.com/product/usa/pi_circulars/v/victrelis/victrelis_mg.pdf. Retrieved October 18, 2011.
WebMD “Hepatitis Health Center, Hepatitis C” http://www.webmd.com/hepatitis/hepc-guide/default.htm Retrieved October 28, 2011
World Health Organization “Hepatitis C” http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs164/en/ Retrieved October 28, 2011
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