The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – C

Celsius; Centigrade; Complement
Chronic Active
Cactus Grandiflorus
Used for for conditions of heart disease of nervous or drug origin,  palpitations, irregular pulse, tachycardia, shortness of breath
Cadaveric Donor
An individual who has recently died of causes that do not affect the function of an organ to be transplanted. Either the person or the person’s family has generously offered organs and/or tissues for transplantation
Cadaveric Graft
Tissue donated from a dead body
Cholangiogram, Chronic Atrophic Gastritis
Chronic Active Hepatitis
Calamus Root
Used for lack of mental focus, acidity, stomach problems, an aid to quit smoking. Said to have anti-arrhythmic, anti-tussive, hypotensive, anti-bacterial vasodilatory, and expectorant properties. Tincture of Calamus is useful as a parasiticide when directly applied to scabies and lice infestations. When added to the bath it quiets the nerves and induces a state of tranquillity. Avoid during pregnancy
Excess blood Calcium
A physiologically active metabolic derivative of cholecalciferol that is synthesized in the liver and kidney and stimulates the intestinal absorption of calcium
The body’s most abundant mineral. Its primary function is to help build and maintain bones and teeth. Calcium is important to heart health, nerves, muscles and skin. Calcium helps control blood acid-alkaline balance, plays a role in cell division, muscle growth and iron utilization, activates certain enzymes, and helps transport nutrients through cell membranes. Calcium also forms a cellular cement called ground substance that helps hold cells and tissues together. Hypercalcemia is seen in malignant neoplasms (with or without bone involvement), primary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, vitamin D intoxication, milk-alkali syndrome, Paget’s disease of bone (with immobilization), thyrotoxicosis, acromegaly, and diuretic phase of renal acute tubular necrosis. For a given total calcium level, acidosis increases the physiologically active ionized form of calcium. Prolonged tourniquet pressure during venipuncture may spuriously increase total calcium. Hypocalcemia must be interpreted to relation to serum albumin concentration. True decrease in the physiologically active ionized form of Ca++ occurs in many situations, including hypoparathyroidism, vitamin D deficiency, chronic renal failure, Mg++ deficiency, prolonged anticonvulsant therapy, acute pancreatitis, massive transfusion, alcoholism, etc.
Calcium Channel Blockers
Medicines for angina (chest pain) and high blood pressure affect the movement of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels, relax blood vessels, and increase the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart. Examples of calcium channel blockers include diltiazem (Cardizem), nifedipine (Procardia), and verpamil (Isoptin)
Calcium Oxalate Stone
Kidney stone
Condition characterized by by the presence of Calculi
An abnormal concretion occurring within the body and usually composed of mineral salts, a stone (lithiasis). Also called Kidney and Gallstones
Chronic Active Liver Disease
Used for treating local skin problems. Also be used for any external bleeding or wound, and bruising or strains
California Poppy
Used effectively as a sedative. Colic pains, may also be useful in the treatment of gall-bladder colic
Drug having a mild sedative effect
One of the narrow spaces between cells in the anastomosing cords of cells that make up a liver lobule
Canal of Hering
A biliary channel lined partially by biliary epithelium (cholangiocytes) and partially by hepatocytes situated at the periphery of portal tracts or within the parenchyma in the periportal region
Term for more than 100 diseases in which abnormal cells multiply without control. Cancer cells can spread through the bloodstream and lymphatic system to other parts of the body
Chronic Alcoholic Pancreatitis
A genus of slender white nematode worms of the family Trichuridae that includes serious pathogens of the alimentary tract of fowls and some tissue and organ parasites of mammals including one (C. hepatica) which is common in rodents and occas. Invades the human liver sometimes with fatal results
Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body
Capillary Refill
When a fingernail is pressed, the nail bed turns white. Capillary refill refers to the return of the nail bed to pink color. Good cap refill is two seconds or less
Caput Medusae
Literally “Medusa’s head”; dilated, varicose veins around the umbilicus, which may be seen in patients with cirrhosis of the liver
Hot Red Chili Peppers–Studies indicate that capsicum could help prevent the formation of blood clots. New research is focusing on this spices ability to act as an anti-inflammatory agent, and aid in controlling pain. Breaks down blood clots. Helps in controlling pain associated with herpes zoster, known as shingles, as well as neuralgia and postoperative amputation trauma. Taken internally to aid digestion. Avoid getting capsicum products in the eyes, can be extremely painful
Protective shell of protein that surrounds the genetic material of a virus
Protein-based subunit of a viral capsid. Capsomeres are designed to attract each other in a certain pattern – when enough are present, they self-assemble to form the capsid
Various sized, hollow, soluble, transparent tubes used to contain and administer medicines
Carum Carvi–Used as a digestive aid, helps expel gas and reduce nausea. Increases appetite, stimulates production of breast milk in nursing mothers, eases colic in infants. Effective expectorant for coughs due to colds
One of the three nutrients that supply calories (energy) to our body. Carbohydrate provides 4 calories per gram, the same number of calories as pure protein and less than half the calories of fat. Carbohydrates are essential for normal body function
Carbon Dioxide
Colorless, odorless gas present in small amounts in the atmosphere and formed during respiration
Cancer-causing substance
Cancer causing
Cancer that begins in the lining or covering of an organ. Cancerous growth that occurs in the tissues that cover the internal and external surfaces of the body
Elletaria Cardamonum–Helps stimulate digestion and relieve gas
Cardiac Arrest
Sudden cessation of the heart’s pumping action, possibly due to a heart attack, respiratory arrest, electrical shock, extreme cold, blood loss, drug overdose, or a severe allergic reaction
Cardiac Cirrhosis
Fibrosis of the liver, probably following central hemorrhagic necrosis, in association with congestive heart disease. It is characterized by scarring about the central veins of the hepatic lobules
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Administration of heart compression and artificial respiration to restore circulation and breathing
Cardiovascular System
Heart and blood vessels that are responsible for circulating blood throughout the body
Drug used to relieve flatulence, or to expel gas from the intestine
Compound found in skeletal and cardiac muscle and certain other tissues that functions as a carrier of fatty acids across the membranes of the mitochondria. Carnitine has been used therapeutically in treating angina and certain deficiency diseases
Group of red, orange and yellow pigments found in plant foods and in the tissues of organisms that consume plants. Carotenoids have antioxidant activity and some, but not all, can act as precursors of vitamin A. Studies have shown that several carotenoids other than betacarotene are potent antioxidants that provide profound health benefits. The scientific community has now recognized the importance of natural mixed carotenoids including beta carotene
Practically all people who are HCV antibody positive ‘carry’ the virus. The term ‘carrier’ is often misused, though, to mean someone who has the hepatitis C virus yet is in good health. In regard to hepatitis C, the term ‘carrier’ is used less and less. Better definitions of illness status include antibody positive or antibody negative; symptomatic or asymptomatic. Most important to note, is that all people who are hepatitis C antibody positive need to be aware of potentially passing on the virus
Carrier Status
A term used to describe those who suffer with chronic viral hepatitis, refers particularly continued infectivity of those patients
Daucus Carota– Plant form of Vitamin A, rich in Carotene, believed to help prevent certain types of cancer. Excellent for the eyes, helps counteract weak vision and night blindness, may also lower blood cholesterol level. Also a good treatment for diarrhea, relieves gas and heartburn. Soothes indigestion
Cascara Sagrada
Rhamnus Purshiana–Also known as Chittem bark and Sacred bark. Used to treat constipation and upset stomach. Recommended as a tonic for the digestive system, to stimulate the liver, gallbladder pancreas, and stomach. It is also considered to be useful in the treatment of jaundice, colic and hemorrhoids. Useful in detoxifying and cleansing programs. Used in small doses as a liver tonic, also as a chelating agent to prevent the occurrence of calcium-based urinary stones. When using, if diarrhea should result, discontinue use immediately
Case-control Study
A study in which the risk factors of people with a disease are compared with those without a disease
Case Report Form-CRF
A standardized data entry form used in a clinical trial. Generally, all information collected in trials appears on case report forms, or is referred to and explained by case report forms (as in the case of attached lab slips). Even in circumstances where there is other documentation in addition to CRFs (like the lab slips), generally all key values that will be analyzed appear on the CRF
Computed Abdominal Tomography
Catabolic Changes
Breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones
Chemical breakdown, breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy
Speed up
Substance that influences the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed in the process. Usually present in very small amounts
Catalytic Model
Type of compartmental model in which the force of infection is treated as a parameter to be estimated
Drug used to help in the evacuation of the bowel; a laxative or purgative
Catcher’s Mask
A device used for a patient with bleeding varices in the throat that allows a tube with two balloons attached to be positioned securely in the throat and inflated. The balloons then put pressure on the enlarged veins in order to stop the bleeding
A thin, flexible plastic tube that can be placed inside some part of the body–for example, a Foley catheter which is used to drain urine from the bladder
Technique in which a hollow and flexible tube is used to drain body fluids (such as urine), to introduce fluids into the body, or to examine or widen a narrowed vein or artery
Substance that causes a chemical reaction to go faster, but is not itself changed during the reaction
Disorder in which the lens of the eye becomes partly or completely opaque as a result of the precipitation of proteins
Calmative, Catnip tea is widely believed to hasten slumber and help in achieving a restful nights sleep, used in the treatment of tension and anxiety, mild diaphoretic, helps in digestion, relieves upset stomach, and controls the symptoms of diarrhea
Combined Abdominal Transsacral Resection Technique
Cat’s Claw
Uncaria Tomentosa–This herb is grown as a vine commonly known as Cat’s Claw and has been used traditionally for thousands of years. Recently, several of the alkaloid chemical constituents of the plant have been isolated and available in standardized amounts. These alkaloids have been shown to have profound beneficial properties affecting immune function,with the ability to cleanse the entire intestinal tract. Used to treat colitis, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and leaky bowel syndrome
Strong  fortifier and tonic of the nervous system, has been known to help failing memories, helps eliminate restless sleep and insomnia from hypertension. Also used as a male aphrodisiac, tonic to the male organs. Used to treat male impotency
Caudate Lobe
Also called Spigelian Lobe. A lobe of the liver bounded on the right by the inferior vena cava, on the left by the fissure of the ductus venosus, and connected with the right lobe by a narrow prolongation
Cause related
There is causation only when one factor necessarily alters the possibility of a second. Statistical methods alone cannot establish a causal relationship between factors. Examples of criteria to test causation include: (1) strength of the association, (2) biologic credibility of the association, (3) consistency of the findings with other investigations, (4) temporal relationship of the association,(5) presence of a dose-response relationship. Randomization allows assessment of causation
Destroying tissue by heat, chemicals or, intense cold
Capsicum Frutescens. Capsicum Annuum. Also referred to as Capsicum, chili pepper or red pepper and comes from the family Solanaceae. These plants have been highly valued as spices and are extensively cultivated, which results in peppers widely differing from one another in size, shape and pungency. Used to treat certain types of chronic pain, including diabetic foot pain, arthritis, and shingles. Aids digestion and may help prevent heart disease. Experts recommend taking cayenne in capsules, which you can get from a herbal store. Cayenne is generally regarded as safe unless you have ulcers or a history of stomach problems. Remember to wash your hands thoroughly after using
Conjugated Bilirubin
Complete Blood Count
C Bile
Hepatic bile; it is obtained from a duodenal drainage tube after the gallbladder has been emptied
Common Bile Duct
Common Bile Duct Exploration
Chronic Benign Hepatitis
See Cubic Centimeter
Coordinating Center for Biometric Research
Crohn’s Disease
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention responsible for estimating prevalence rates and epidemiological studies
(T4)-Another name for a “helper” T-cell. A protein embedded in the cell surface of helper T-lymphocytes; also found to a lesser degree on the surface of monocyte/macrophage, langerhans cells, astrocytes, keratinocytes, and glial cells
CD4 Cell
Helper” T-cell, responsible for coordinating much of the immune response
CD4 Count
The number of T-helper lymphocytes per cubic millimeter of blood. The CD4 count is a good predictor of immune health. A CD4 count less than 200 qualifies as a diagnosis of AIDS
CD8 – T8
Another name for a “killer” T-cell. A protein embedded in the cell surface of killer and suppresser T-lymphocytes
CD4, CD8
Immune cells, CD4, Symbol for glycoprotein expressed on the surface of most phytocytes and some lymphocytes, including Helper T cells. Human CD4 is the receptor that serves as a docking site for HIV viruses on certain lymphocyte cells. Binding of the viral glycoprotein gp120 to CD4 is the first step in viral entry, leading to the fusion of viral and cell membrane
CD8 Count
The number of killer/suppresser T-lymphocytes in a cubic millimeter of blood
Cardioesophageal, Cholesteryl Esters
Carcinoembryonic Antigen
Dilated pouch that forms the first part of the large intestine and connects the colon to the ileum
Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase
Chelidonium Majus–Used externally for warts. Useful for insufficient bile with clay-colored or gray-colored stools, stagnant liver with flank pain. Helps prevent gall stone formation, and is used with Chionanthus to expel biliary calculi. Celandine also has marked anti-viral activity against retrovirus’
Celery Seed
May add protection against cancer,  high cholesterol and high blood pressure. Contains has a diuretic substance, which will help you to lose water weight
Celiac Sprue
also called Celiac Disease, Nontropical Sprue, Gluten Sensitive Enteropathy, Gluten Intolerance. Inherited disorder in which the lining of the small intestine is damaged when the affected individual eats rye, oats, barley or wheat. Gluten, a protein in these grains, is thought to be the offending agent
Smallest component of a living organism (except for viruses, which do not have cells). Some organisms, like algae and bacteria, consist of a single cell, which contains all of their functions and processes. More complex organisms (such as humans), consist of large numbers of specialized cells (blood cells, heart cells, muscle cells, etc.) which combine to form the larger organism. A typical cell consists of a cell membrane or cell wall which contains the cells structures, a cytoplasm ( jelly-like substance which fills the cell), a nucleus (a central structure within the cell which contains genetic material), and a number of smaller components which are responsible for disposing of waste and generating energy, and producing materials necessary for the operation of the cell
An immunosuppressive drug used with other immunosuppressants to prevent the rejection of a transplanted organ. Also known by its chemical name, myophenolate mofetil
Cell Lines
Specific cell types artificially maintained in the laboratory (in-vitro) for scientific purposes
Cell-Mediated Immunity – CMI
A branch of the immune system responsible for the reaction to foreign material by specific defense cells (T-lymphocytes, killer cells, macrophage and other white blood cells) rather than antibodies
Cell Membrane
Cell surface. Delicate structure which encloses the cell, separating the contents of the cell from the surrounding environment
Cellular Immunity
Referring to the action of T cell lymphocytes in the role of specific responses to antigens
Cellular Infiltration
Passage of cells into tissues in the course of acute, subacute, or chronic inflammation
Skin infection caused by bacteria (usually streptococci); can lead to tissue damage and blood poisoning if untreated; characterized by fever, chills, heat, tenderness, and redness
A kind of dietary fiber that is resistent to digestion by humans. Cellulose is the basic constituent of all vegetable tissues and the most abundant organic material in the world
Cell Wall
Semirigid, permeable structure that is composed of  lignin, cellulose, or other substances that envelopes most plant cells
Of, Pertaining to, or consisting of cells
A measurement of temperature (Celsius or Centigrade) that is commonly used in Europe. Normal body temperature is considered to be 37 degrees Celsius or 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. Body temperature can vary 1/2 degree Celsius above or below 37 C. and still be considered “normal.” Body temperature varies with many factors including level of activity. To convert a Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius use: C = (F – 32) x 5/9. To convert a Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit use: F = (C x 9/5) + 32
A term used in survival or time-to-event analyses to denote an individual who has not experienced the event of interest as of a specific point in follow-up, e.g. time of interim analysis, end of study, or time at lost to follow-up. The process by which patient outcome data cannot be obtained beyond a specific point in time
See Celsius
Centella Asiatica Urban–Also known as Pennywort and Gotu Kola. Used to bring down fevers and relieve congestion due to upper respiratory infections and colds. Improves the flow of blood throughout the body by strengthening the capillaries and veins, used to treat phlebitis, swelling of the legs, leg cramps, tingling or heaviness in the legs. Relieves high blood pressure, senility, mental fatigue, and helps the body defend itself against different toxins, blood purifier, skin problems, rheumatism. Large doses it can act as a sedative. Contains Vitamins A, G, K, is also high in magnesium. Supporting agents for Centella include: Bilberry, Butcher’s Broom, Silica, Zinc, Vitamins C, D and E
1/100g. Centigram (cg) is a measure of weight; centiliter (cl) is a measure of volume
A prefix meaning a hundred times, as in centogram, a hundred grams
Central Line
The central location in the circulation of the vein used, usually in the internal jugular and subclavian veins in the neck, or the femoral veins in the groin. This has the benefit of being able to send more fluid into the body
Central Nervous System – CNS
Composed of the brain, spinal cord, and its coverings (meninges)
Central Vein
Also called Intralobular Vein. Any of the veins in the lobules of the liver that occur one in each lobule running from the apex to the base, receive blood from the sinusoids, and empty into the sublobular veins
Relating to or affecting the center of a lobule centrilobular necrosis in the liver
Region of the brain located at the back; responsible for coordination of movement and maintaining balance
Relating to the brain
Any of various lipids composed of ceramide and a monosaccharide and found especially in the myelin sheath of nerves
Largest part of the brain and the site of most of its activity, including sensory and motor functions
A yellow to brown pigment found particularly in the liver in cirrhosis
Copper transporter protein; blood levels are usually decreased in Wilson’s disease
Ear Wax
A radioactive isotope used for continuous internal radiotherapy
CMO–Is effective in treating patients afflicted with mild to severe cases of various forms of arthritis. Studies Show a consistent, permanent relief from pain, inflammation, and marked deformation of nearly all interphalangeal & large joints
Cystic Fibrosis. Complement fixation, Fixating
Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Code of Federal Regulations
Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide
Common Hepatic Artery
Chain Reaction
A reaction in which a product reacts and thus continues the reaction
Matricaria Chamomilla. Chamomile is a member of the Asteraceae or daisy family and yields a blue-colored volatile oil. Often taken in a tea form, chamomile is most effective in whole extracts or preparations containing quantities of the volatile oil. A soothing and calming tea, used in treatment for skin conditions, cramps and digestion, mild sedative, remedy for insomnia, aid for digestion. Chamomile tea is extremely safe, though ingestion of large amounts can lead to stomach upset. Those allergic to asters, ragweed and chrysanthemums may produce hypersensitivity to chamomile products. Though these reactions are extremely rare, they can lead to congestion, sneezing, anaphylaxis or contact dermatitis
Random variation, i.e., the happening of events without an apparent cause
Larrea Tridentata–also known as Creosote bush and Greasewood. Too toxic to be recommended for human consumption.
Traits or attributes that describe a person or thing
Chaste Tree
also called Vitex. Used for premenstrual stress, dysmenorrhoea, disorders related to hormone function. Particularly beneficial during menopausal changes. Helps restore a normal estrogen to progesterone balance. Can help control acne in teenagers
Chronic Hepatitis C Virus
Chem 7
A battery of blood chemistry tests; the seven parts of a Chem 7; sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, and glucose
Two or more atoms united by chemical bonds to form a molecule. Over four million chemicals are known to man. When chemicals interfere with normal chemical processes in living cells, they are referred to as toxins. Plants and fungi often produce toxins to discourage browsing by insects and larger animals. A man-made toxin has properties identical to the same toxin produced by a plant
Blocking the blood flow to a certain area by means of intravenous drugs
Drug treatment designed to prevent future occurrences of disease. Treatment may be chemotherapy as far as an individual is concerned but chemopropylactic for the population as a whole
Treatment with anticancer drugs, treatment of infections or cancer with drugs that act on disease producing organisms or cancerous tissue; may also affect normal cells. Drug treatment of a diseased individual
Chenodeoxycholic Acid
A drug, identical to one of the natural bile acids, it can dissolve cholesterol gallstones in some patients
Stellaric Media–Taken internally, as a team Chickweed is used to treat asthma, arthritis, blood disorders, cancer, constipation, fevers, gout, lung disease, and aids in weight control. As an oil to make a poultice, chickweed is used as a treatment for skin disorders such as boils, eczema, psoriasis, ulcers, and a many types of rashes. No reported toxic effects from consumption of chickweed
Chinese Liver Fluke
A common and destructive Asian liver fluke of the genus Clonorchis (C. sinensis) that has a complex life cycle involving a mollusk and a fish as intermediate hosts and that esp. in eastern and southeastern Asia is a serious human parasite invading the liver following the consumption of raw infected fish and causing clonorchiasis
Liver spots or ages spots that occur during pregnancy
Tranquilizer relieves anxiety or agitation. Examples of brand names include Thorazine and Ormazine
Chlorella Pyrenoidosa. Chlorella is a green, single celled micro-algae that has been at the base of the planetary food chain for over 2.5 billion years. Chlorella is one of the most widely and intensely researched therapeutic foods available today. Literally hundreds of scientific papers have been presented documenting its efficacy in human nutrition. Chlorella contains a broader spectrum of significant nutrients than any other known food source. It is the world’s highest source of chlorophyll, much higher than spirulina
Increase in serum chloride is seen in dehydration, renal tubular acidosis, acute renal failure, diabetes insipidus, prolonged diarrhea, salicylate toxicity, respiratory alkalosis, hypothalamic lesions, and adrenocortical hyperfunction. Drugs causing increased chloride include acetazolamide, androgens, corticosteroids, cholestyramine, diazoxide, estrogens, guanethidine, methyldopa, oxyphenbutazone, phenylbutazone, thiazides, and triamterene. Bromides in serum will not be distinguished from chloride in routine testing, so intoxication may show spuriously increased chloride. Decrease in serum chloride is seen in excessive sweating, prolonged vomiting, salt-losing nephropathy, adrenocortical defficiency, various acid base disturbances, conditions characterized by expansion of extracellular fluid volume, acute intermittent porphyria, SIADH, etc. Drugs causing decreased chloride include bicarbonate, carbenoxolone, corticosteroids, diuretics, laxatives, and theophylline
Poisonous gas, but in the form of chloride compounds it is an essential mineral nutrient. Acts with sodium to help maintain the balance between fluids inside and outside cells. Bananas, Barley (pearled), Beets, Blackstrap molasses, Brazil nuts, Carrots, Celery, Coconut (dried), Coconut (fresh), Dandelion greens, Endive, Hazelnuts, Head Lettuce, Kale, Kohlrabi, Leaf Cabbage, Leaf Lettuce, Parsley, Pecans, Rhubarb, Spinach, Sweet potatoes, Turnip Greens, Turnips (white), Watercress, Wheat (whole) contain significant amounts of this nutrient
A sulfonamide, that is a long-acting diuretic used in the treatment of hypertension and in the treatment of edema associated particularlywith cirrhosis of the liver, renal dysfunction, congestive heart failure, or corticosteroid and estrogen therapy
Radiographic imaging of the bile ducts after the direct injection of radio-opaque dye
Inflammation of the bile ducts, or biliary tract
Synthesis of cholic acid, its derivatives, or bile by the liver
Formation of bile pigments by the liver
Surgical removal of the gallbladder
Inflammation of the gallbladder
Diagnostic test in which an x-ray is taken of the gallbladder after the patient has swallowed pills containing a special dye. The dye is absorbed from the intestine and then passed into the bile to reach the gallbladder
Repair of a bile duct
The presence of excess bile in the blood usually indicative of liver disease
The flow of bile from the liver especially when increased above a previous or normal level
Promoting bile secretion by the liver
Blockage or suppression of bile flow, from either intrahepatic or extrahepatic causes
Soft, waxy substance. It is made in sufficient quantity by the body for normal body function, including the manufacture of hormones, vitamin D and bile acid. Present in all parts of the body, including the liver, heart, nervous system, muscle, intestines and skin. There are two types of cholesterol–Dietary Cholesterol and Blood Cholesterol
Lipotropic substance sometimes included in the vitamin B complex as essential for the metabolism of fats in the body. Precursor to acetylcholine, a major neurotransmitter in the brain. Choline prevents the deposition of fats in the liver and facilitates the movement of fats into the cells. Deficiency leads to cirrhosis of the liver. Essential to liver function. Very important in controlling fat & cholesterol buildup in the body. Helps regulate the kidneys, liver & gallbladder, important for proper nerve transmission and helps improve memory. Choline deficieny symptoms may result in cirrhosis and fatty degeneration of the liver, hardening of the arteries, heart problems, high blood pressure, and/or hemorrhaging kidneys
Acts as a water magnets within our joint cartilage. Chondroitin helps attract fluid into the proteoglycan molecules, which acts as a spongy shock absorber for the bones, and as a mechanism to sweep body nutrients into the cartilage for nourishment & lubrication
Tranquilizer that relieves agitation & anxiety
Bile duct X-ray
Bile duct inflammation
Gall bladder inflammation
Gallstones, Presence or formation of gallstones
Bile flow stoppage
Cholestasis, Intrahepatic
Intrahepatic impairment of bile flow. It is usually due to liver cell damage, but may be due to obstruction of intrahepatic bile ducts. It is also called hepatocellular jaundice and medical jaundice
Each of a pair of identical DNA molecules after DNA replication, joined at the centromere
Protein/DNA complex making the chromosome
Mineral that becomes a part of the glucose tolerance factor (GTF). Aids in insulin utilization and blood sugar control. By controlling blood sugar, chromium helps prevent the damage caused by glucose, which is called glycation. Helps maintain normal cholesterol levels and improves high-density lipoprotein levels. Important in building muscle and reducing obesity. Also cleans the arteries by reducing cholesterol & triglyceride levels; helps transport amino acids to where the body needs them; and helps control the appetite. A deficiency of chromium may result in glucose intolerance in diabetics; atherosclerosis, depressed growth, heart disease, obesity, and/or fatigue. Research showa that persons with low levels of chromium in their bodies are more susceptible to having cancer and heart problems, and of becoming diabetic
Chromium Picolinate
Has an insulin stimulating and binding action. This ingredient is frequently used in many over the counter weight loss preparations
Molecules of DNA complexed with specific proteins responsible in eukaryotes for storage and transmission of genetic information
Long duration, possibly years, frequent recurrence over a long time, and often by slowly progressing seriousness, not acute. One that suffers from a chronic disease
Chronic Active Hepatitis
Any form of liver inflammation lasting more than six months and causing continuing damage to liver cells. It often precedes cirrhosis
Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)
Caused by a defect in an enzyme called phagocyte NADPH oxidase, or phox. White blood cells use this enzyme to generate hydrogen peroxide, which the cells need to kill bacteria and fungi. Mutations in one of four different genes can cause this defect, which leads to frequent and often life-threatening infections of the skin, lungs and bones with localized, swollen collections of inflamed tissue called granulomas. Approximately four to five of every million people worldwide have CGD, including about 1,000 people in the United States
Chronic Hepatitis
Long lasting, progressive destruction of the liver, leading eventually to cirrhosis and liver failure
Chronic Infection
Infection that lasts for a long time or returns after it appeared of been cured.The converse of acute infections, i.e. prolonged and stubborn. Caused by viruses which are able to persist in the body 
Chronic Liver Disease
Slow process and persisting over a long period of time, resulting in a progressive destruction of the liver
Chronic Persistent Hepatitis
A mild form of chronic hepatitis, usually associated with a better outcome. In Hepatitis C, the distinction between chronic active and chronic persistent hepatitis is not so clear cut
Speed related
Minute fat particles present in lymph which normally are quickly cleared from the blood
Thick liquid mixture of stomach juices and partly digested food that passes from the stomach into the intestines. Name given to our food once it has been liquified and mixed with stomach acids and enzymes
Congenital Intestinal Aganglionosis
Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease
also called Corriander and Chinese Parsley. The leaves are called Cilantro and the seeds are called Corriander. Eases indigestion and prevents wound infection
Tagamet–Drug used to control ulcer pain and to aid in the healing of peptic ulcers by reducing the amount of acid the stomach secretes
A bitter white crystalline compound made synthetically that is used for treating gout and rheumatism but is damaging to the liver
Primary sources of Quinine. Large doses of Cinchona have a depressant effect on the heart, small amounts are harmless. Same anti-malarial activity as an effective dose of quinine
Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Emesis
This herb has been used medicinally for thousands of years to fight tooth decay, clear up urinary tract infections and soothe stomach irritation. Chinese herbalists still recommend it for relieving nausea, fever, diarrhea, and menstrual problems. Modern herbalists disagree on its ability to aid in menstrual difficulties; some think it stimulates uterine contractions, while others believe it calms the muscle. Cinnamon oil is a different story. Applied to the skin, it may cause redness and burning. Taken internally, it can cause nausea, vomiting and possibly even kidney damage. Never ingest cinnamon oil. Culinary cinnamon is on the Food and Drug Administration’s list of herbs generally regarded as safe. For healthy non-pregnant adults, there’s no danger from medicinal doses.
Circular Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Single or double stranded ring of DNA found in the human wart virus and certain bacteriophages
Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology
Functions and activities of cardiovascular circulation and of respiration and respiratory mechanics
Tending to cause cirrhosis of the liver
A condition where scar tissue develops in the liver – to the extent where such scaring becomes extensive and permanent. Cirrhosis interferes with the normal functioning of the liver. The formation of fibrous scar tissue in place of healthy cells, obstructing the flow of blood through the liver. As a result, the various functions of the liver deteriorate. Widespread disruption of normal liver structure by fibrosis and the formation of regenerative nodules that is caused by any of various chronic progressive conditions affecting the liver
Cirrhosis, Laennec’s, Portal Cirrhosis
Hepatic cirrhosis in which increased connective tissue spreads out from the portal spaces compressing and distorting the lobules, causing impairment of liver function, and ultimately producing the typical hobnail liver
Cirrhosis, Postnecrotic
Cirrhosis of the liver following widespread necrosis of liver cells especially as a result of hepatitis
Person affected with cirrhosis. Of, relating to, caused by, or affected with cirrhosis
Cirrhotic Liver
One that is the site of cirrhosis
Carcinoma In Situ
Citric Acid
Colorless crystalline acid
Creatine Kinase
Chloride; Chlorine
Classic Lobule
The hexagonal lobule as originally described by Kiernan with the terminal hepatic vein (central vein) surrounded by 6 terminal portal tracts
Classical Epidemiology
Term for the varieties of epidemiology primarily concerned with the statistical relationships between disease agents, both infectious and non-infectious; for example a study to establish the relative risk of lung cancer associated with smoking
Limping caused by impaired blood supply to the legs
Perhaps the best tonic to the lymphatic system available. Cleavers may be used safely in a wide range of problems where the lymphatic system is involved. These include swollen glands (lymphadenitis) anywhere in the body, especially in tonsillitis and adenoid trouble. Used to treat skin conditions, especially the dry skin such as psoriasis. Used in the treatment of cystitis and other urinary conditions where there is pain. Effective in the treatment of ulcers and tumors. This may have its basis in the lymphatic drainage, which helps detoxify tissue. For the lymphatic system, combine this herb with Echinacea or Calendula. For skin conditions, combine Cleavers with Burdock and Yellow Dock. For diuretic purposes, Cleavers is often used with Bearberry and/or Buchu
Pertaining to a clinic or to the bedside. Pertaining to or founded on actual observation and treatment of patients, as distinguished from theoretical or basis sciences
Clinical Cooperative Group
A group of medical institutions cooperating to perform clinical research
Clinical Depression
A clinical syndrome that includes a persistent sad mood or loss of interest in activities that persists for at least 2 weeks in the absence of external precipitants
Clinical Investigator
A medically qualified scientist who works with patients in clinical investigations and Clinical Trials
Clinical Presentation
This refers to the typical physical signs or symptoms that are associated with a particular disease process. The proper interpretation of the clinical presentation often leads to a specific diagnosis
Clinical Studies
See Clinical Trials. Human studies that are designed to measure the safety, efficacy, and appropriate dosage of a new drug or biological. Clinical studies routinely involve the use of a placebo group that is given an inactive substance that looks like the test product
Clinical Syndrome
A clinical syndrome represents a typical constellation of physical (and laboratory) findings that may be seen as part of a primary disease process
Clinical Trials
Carefully controlled tests that are done to learn the effectiveness and safety of new medical drugs and techniques. See Clinical Studies
A bacteriocin produced by a plasmid that can occur in several bacterial strains. It is a basic protein of molecular weight 56,000 and exists in a complex with its immunity protein which protects the host bacterium from its effects
A group of cells derived from a single cell by repeated mitosis, or repeatedly dividing to make more cells. Aggregate of the asexually produced progeny of an individual. An individual grown from a single somatic cell of its parent and genetically identical to it
Infection of the biliary passages with the liver fluke Opisthorchis sinensis, (Chinese Liver Fluke) may lead to inflammation of the biliary tree, proliferation of the biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes biliary duct carcinoma; extension into the liver parenchyma may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. Invades bile ducts of the liver after ingestion in uncooked fish and when present in numbers causes severe systemic reactions including edema, liver enlargement, and diarrhea
Close Contact Infection
An infection which requires close contact, other than sexual contact, between susceptible and infectious individuals, for transmission
Caryophyllum Aromaticus–Powerful food preservative. Put several in a ham and it will last several days longer in the refrigerator. Oil of clove has been used for thousands of years as a remedy for toothache. Clove oil is highly antiseptic. It is also used to stop vomiting. Studies show that the oil in cloves can help kill several strains of staphylococcus bacteria and one strain of pseudomonas organisms that can cause skin infections. To treat cuts, make a poultice by grinding up several cloves and mixing in water to form a paste. Apply the poultice directly to the site of the cut. Cover it with a warm towel. Ingesting high doses of clove oil may cause stomach upset.) If a clove poultice causes skin reddening or a rash, discontinue use
CMI-Cell-Mediated Immunity
A branch of the immune system responsible for the reaction to foreign material by specific defense cells (T-lymphocytes, killer cells, macrophage and other white blood cells) rather than antibodies
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services
See Cytomegalovirus
Central Nervous System
Carbon Dioxide
CO2 Content
Increase in serum CO2 content for the most part reflects increase in serum bicarbonate concentration rather than dissolved CO2 gas (which accounts for only a small fraction of the total). Increased serum bicarbonate is seen in compensated respiratory acidosis and in metabolic alkalosis. Diuretics [thiazides, ethacrynic acid, furosemide, mercurials), corticosteroids (in long term use), and laxatives (when abused) may cause increased bicarbonate. Critical studies on bicarbonate are best done on anaerobically collected heparinized whole blood (as for blood gas determination) because of interaction of blood and atmosphere in routinely collected serum specimens. Decrease in blood CO2 is seen in metabolic acidosis and compensated respiratory alkalosis. Substances causing metabolic acidosis include ammonium chloride, acetazolamide, ethylene glycol, methanol, paraldehyde, and phenformin. Salicylate poisoning is characterized by early respiratory alkalosis followed by metabolic acidosis with attendant decreased bicarbonate
Coag Panel
Blood test used to determine the clotting factors of a patient’s blood
Any bacterial component or product which causes coagulation in plasma containing an anticoagulant such as citrate, heparin or oxalate. Coagulases are produced by certain staphylococci and by Yersinia pestis. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen
Blood clotting
Decreased ability to synthesize clotting factors
Vitamin B-12. Essential for the normal functioning of all body cells, especially those of bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract and nervous system  Also necessary for the formation of red blood cells. Prevents pernicious anemia and is necessary to a healthy nervous system. It is involved in synthesis of genetic material (DNA). It is needed for effective calcium absorption in the body. A deficiency of Cobalamin may lead to pernicious anemia, poor appetite, brain damage, degeneration of spinal cord, depression, nervousness, neuritis, growth failure in children, tiredness, and/or lack of balance
Cod Liver Oil
Pale-yellow, fatty oil extracted from the fresh livers of the codfish and other related species. A rich source of fat-soluble vitamins A and D. Aids the liver, helps the brain, nervous system, strengthens bones, aids in the production of prostaglandin. Calcium is better assimilated in the presence of Vitamin D3. Also works as a lubricant to alleviate stiffness & pain in the joints
Code Brown
Term used when a patient doesn’t make it to the bathroom in time
Specific sequence of three consecutive nucleotides that is part of the genetic code and that specifies a particular amino acid in a protein or starts or stops protein synthesis, called also triplet
Codon, Initiation
Also called Initiator Codon. Codon that stimulates the binding of a transfer RNA which starts protein synthesis
Organic nonprotein molecule
CoEnzyme Q-10
Natural substance found in every cell of the human body, particularly in the heart and liver. Helps to manufacture ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate). Aids in detoxification, sustains the immune system, potent antioxidant, lowers high blood pressure, Helps prevent heart and circulatory disease, effective in treating periodontal disease, slows the aging process. CoEnzyme Q-10 is found in every cell in our body. It is required by our body to transmit carbohydrates, fats, and protein into ATP, the source of energy at cellular level
Changes in the genotypes of two or more species that are a direct consequence of the species’ interaction with one another
A substance, microorganism or environmental factor that activates or enhances the action of another entity such as a disease-causing agent. Cofactors may influence the progression of a disease or the likelihood of becoming ill
Used to relieve nasal congestion, Control asthma, headaches, Boost athletic endurance, boosts the number of calories you burn per hour by about 4 %, Lessen the effect of jet lag. Coffee is addictive. Coffee causes insomnia and increasing anxiety, irritability and nervousness. It remains in the body for 8 to 12 hours. Also aggravates panic attacks. May cause stomach upset. People with ulcers or gastrointestinal conditions should drink it rarely, if at all
[For a Coffee subsititue that is great, Try Raja’s Cup]
A subsection of a population with a common feature, usually age
Infection with a virus when another infection is already present. Such as having Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C. Only people with Hepatitis B can be infected with Hepatitis D
Medicine that eases the inflammation from gout and prevents attacks from recurring
Pain in the abdomen or bowel due to distention, toxemia, inflammation, or obstruction
Inflammation of the colon
Protein in connective tissue and the organic substance found in teeth and bones
Collateral Vessel
Side branch of a blood vessel providing an alternative pathway for blood when blood flow in the main vessel is blocked
Used in the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy, chronic laryngitis hemorrhoids, and varicose veins. Also been used effectively for urinary calculi, colitis, chronic heart problems and diverticulosis. Works well with Saw Palmetto for benign prostatic hypertrophy
Gelatinous or mucinous substance found in tissues in disease or normally (as in the thyroid), Mixture (as smoke) consisting of a colloid together with the medium in which it is dispersed, Substance that consists of particles dispersed throughout another substance which are too small for resolution with an ordinary light microscope but are incapable of passing through a semipermeable membrane
The part of the of the large intestine that extends to the rectum
Residence of bacteria in, or on, part of the body and causing neither disease nor a response by the individual’s immune system
Long, flexible, narrow endoscope passed through the anus to look into the colon
Visualization of the colon with a flexible lighted instrument passed through the anus
Surgical procedure connecting an opening of the colon to a surgically created hole on the body’s surface
Tussilago Farfara–Also called  Coughwort and Horsehoof. Traditional herbalists in the form of a tea to treat the persistent cough associated with bronchitis, emphysema and silicosis. The dried flowers and leaves commonly used in Coltsfoot tea contain Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids which can cause severe liver damage and cancer. While some herbalists think the danger relatively minor when compared to the positive activities of this herb, other practitioners no longer consider Coltsfoot an appropriate remedy in light of other effective herbal alternatives
Combination Therapy
Treatment that involves giving more than one drug or agent
Also known as Blackwort, Bruisewort, Gum plant, Healing herb, Knitback, Salsify, Slippery root, and Wallwort. Used as an anodyne, astringent, demulcent, emollient, expectorant, hemostatic, refrigerant, and/or vulnerary. Makes a good gargle and mouthwash for throat inflammations, hoarseness, and bleeding gums. Drink it to take care of most digestive and stomach problems, for intestinal difficulties, for excessive menstrual flow, and to stop spitting blood. Powdered rootstock can also be taken internally for bloody urine (hematuria), leucorrhea, diarrhea, gastro-intestinal ulcers, dysentery, and persistent coughs. Externally, use the powder as a hemostatic agent, and make a poultice for bruises, insect bites, wounds, and sores. The hot pulp of the rootstock makes a good external application for bronchitis, pleurisy, pain and inflammation of pulled tendons. Add the rootstock to your bath water regularly for younger looking skin
Correcting a function that has been adversely affected
The process of counterbalancing a lack or a defect of a body of physiologic function. A defense mechanisim
Common Bile Duct
The channel formed by the common hepatic and cystic ducts, carrying bile to mix with food in the duodenum, the first part of the small bowel
Common Bile Duct Obstruction
Blockage of the tube that allows the bile to pass from the liver to the small intestine
Common Hepatic Duct
The channel formed by the two hepatic ducts, which drain bile from the left and right sides of the liver
Community Advisory Board
A lay panel. Consisting of patients and affected others, who provide guidance and feedback to clinical trials sites with respect to accrual, retention, compliance, access, and ethical issues surrounding clinical trials
Compartmental Model
A mathematical model which divides hosts into different compartments according to their infectious state
Compassionate Use
Method of providing unapproved drugs to very sick patients who have no other treatment options. Often, case-by-case approval must be obtained from the FDA for “compassionate use” of a drug
Compensated Liver Disease
Liver disease in which the liver is damaged but still functioning normally
Compensating (ed)
Correcting a function that has been adversely affected
Collection of approximately 20 blood proteins. A group of proteins in normal blood serum and plasma that, in combination with antibodies, causes the destruction of antigens (particularly bacteria and foreign blood corpuscles)
Complement Cascade
A precise sequence of events, usually triggered by an antigen-antibody complex, in which each component of the complement system is activated in turn, inactivating and occasionally destroying pathogens
Complement Fixation (CF)
An assay for detecting the presence of antibodies reactive against a particular antigen, e.g. a virus
Complete Blood Count–CBC
Standard set of measurements of the white blood cells and red blood cells
Complex Carbohydrate
Fiber and Starch. Complex carbohydrate comes from plants. When complex carbohydrate is substituted for saturated fat, the saturated fat reduction lowers blood cholesterol. Foods high in starch include pasta, dried beans and peas, corn, and lima beans, cereals, rice and breads
How closely a particular protocol is followed. May be influenced by the willingness and/or ability of patients to conform to treatment by taking medications as prescribed and keeping necessary clinic appointments. Often the resources available to the patient, and the resources and flexibility of the provider will have as great an implication for compliance as any specific patient behavior
New medical problems that arise will dealing with existing medical problems
Computerized Tomography (CT) Scanning
Diagnostic procedure in which the x-ray source rotates around the patient so that an x-ray beam is sent through the patient from many different angles. The x-rays are read by a computer, which constructs three-dirnensional images of the body. Painless procedure
Aspect of mind or behavior that is governed by drives, wishes, impulses, appetites, motives, or aversions
Concomitant Drugs
At the same time
Conducting Portal Vein
The system of larger portal veins that supply terminal portal veins
Confidence Interval
The range of values that includes, with a stated probability (e.g. 95%), the actual population descriptor of interest
From birth, Present at birth
Joined together, but opposite in some characteristic
Not extreme
Infrequent and/or difficult passage of stools
Contact Rate
The rate at which susceptibles meet infecteds. Usually measured as individuals per unit time
Any infectious disease capable of being transmitted by casual contact from one person to another
Contagious Disease
Disease that spreads from one person to another thru direct or indirect routes
Ability to hold in a bowel movement or urine
Ability to contract
Contracting, changing size
Permanent tissue shortening
To indicate against. A specific circumstance when the use of certain treatments could be harmful. A condition in which a drug should not be used
Constrained, monitored, or watched. 2. A system of observation and data collection that provides a basis for comparison, as with a comparison group
Controlled Trial
A method for testing therapies in which the results of a proposed treatment are compared with a standard treatment or with a placebo. In general, two similar groups of patients are used, and both favorable and unfavorable results (i.e. toxicity) are recorded. Unlike anecdotal evidence, controlled trials often form the basis for treatment recommendations
Cooperative Clinical Trial
Term frequently used to denote a multicenter trial
Essential mineral that is a component of several important enzymes in the body and is essential to good health. Found in all body tissues. Copper deficiency leads to a variety of abnormalities, including anemia, degeneration of the nervous system, skeletal defects, pronounced cardiovascular lesions, reproductive failure, elevated cholesterol, impaired immunity and defects in the pigmentation and structure of hair. Copper is involved in iron incorporation into hemoglobin. It is also involved with vitamin C in the formation of collagen and the proper functioning in central nervous system. More than a dozen enzymes have been found to contain copper. The best studied are superoxide dismutase (SOD), cytochrome C oxidase, catalase, dopamine hydroxylase, uricase, tryptophan dioxygenase, lecithinase and other monoamine and diamine oxidases. Plant sources are: Currants, Legumes, Mushrooms, Nuts and Raisins
Cori Cycle
The cycle in carbohydrate metabolism consisting of the conversion of glycogen to lactic acid in muscle, diffusion of the lactic acid into the bloodstream which carries it to the liver where it is converted into glycogen, and the breakdown of liver glycogen to glucose which is transported to muscle by the bloodstream and reconverted into glycogen
Coronary Ligament
The folds of peritoneum connecting the posterior surface of the liver and the diaphragm
Correlation, Pearson r
A statistical technique used to assess the magnitude and the direction of the relationship between two variables. Values of the Pearson r can range between -1 and +1. The continuum of -1 to 0 indicates the degree of strength of an inverse relationship. The continuum of 0 to +1 indicates the degree of strength of a positive relationship. A Pearson r of 0 indicates no linear relationship. For example, bicycle helmet use and bicycle accident head injury are negatively correlated; asbestos exposure and cumulative incidence of mesothelioma are positively correlated
See Cilantro
Reduces painful symptoms and swelling due to several inflammatory conditions, such as cystitis, hepatitis, oligouria, pyelitis, and all edematous conditions. Cornsilk is a diuretic
Medicines such as cortisone and hydrocortisone. These medicines reduce irritation from Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. They may be taken either by mouth or as suppositories. A category of immunosuppressive medications that includes prednisone and prednislone
Drug used to produce superficial inflammation of the skin in order to relieve deeper inflammation
Course Of Infection-
Stages that an infection goes through from the time it appears at the fist symptom, thru treatment, to conclusion
Coronary Heart Disease
Heart ailment caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries (arteries that supply oxygen and nutrients directly to the heart muscle). Coronary heart disease is caused by atherosclerosis, which decreases the blood supply to the heart muscle. The inadequate supply of oxygen rich blood and nutrients damages the heart muscle and can lead to chest pain, heart attack, and death
Herb served as a beverage tea and used to treat high blood pressure. Also known as thela sperma gricilis, hohoysi, chiliweh and Navajo Tea
Used mainly as an anti-inflammatory drug
Co-enzyme Q10, a naturally occuring substance
An oral drug for preventing pathological clotting of blood in blood vessels
Hip pain
Chronic Persistent Hepatitis
Creatine Phosphokinase, an enzyme that elevates in the blood when a heart attack occurs, used as a confirmation of a heart attack and as a gauge of damage
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
Colon Resection, Colorectal
Muscle and nervous relaxant for cramping pains. Especially helpful with cramping of PMS and the menstrual period
Vaccinium Mactocarpon. The American cranberry has been shown to provide an undesirable growth medium for bacteria in the urinary tract. Specifically, it has been shown that cranberry constituents appear to inhibit the ability of bacteria to adhere to the cell wall that lines the urinary tract. Commercially prepared cranberry juice beverages are often laden with sugar and high in calories. Therefore, capsules of cranberry extract available in health food stores are not only more potent, but also less caloric.
Cranesbill Root
Also called Alum root. Strong astringent, reduces inflammation of mucous membranes, curbs irritation of hemorrhoidal tissue. Used to restore venous health. Especially powerful astringent for passive bleeding, like that occurs in hematuria, hemotysis and menorrhagia, and has a potent healing effect on the entire gastrointestinal tract
Colorectal Cancer, Colorectal Carcinoma
Case Report Form
C-reactive Protein
Blood test is used as an indicator of acute inflammation. C-reactive Protein is a protein of the pentraxin family, produced by the liver during periods of inflammation and detectable in serum in various disease conditions particularly during the acute phase of immune response. Normally C-reactive protein should be negative in the bloodstream. Conditions which can cause a positive C-reactive protein include: cancer, lupus, myocardial infarction, pneumococcal pneumonia, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, and tuberculosis. A positive C-reactive protein may also be seen in some woman who are taking birth control pills and in the later half of pregnancy
Amino acid formed by methylation of guanidinoacetic acid and occurring in vertebrate tissues, particularly in muscle. It is excreted in the urine as Creatinine. A waste product in the blood and urine, measurement of which provides a measure of kidney function
Creatine Kinase
Dimeric enzyme that catalyses the formation of ATP from ADP and creatine phosphate in muscle
Creatine Phosphate
Storage compound of vertebrate muscle
Creatine Phosphokinase
Enzyme that is contained in cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle,  and smooth muscle. Important test for the laboratory diagnosis of heart attack. Creatine Phosphokinase is released into the bloodstream in increased quantities if muscle has been injured. Creatine Phosphokinase can be fractionated so that specific measurements can be made for blood levels of creatine phosphokinase that comes exclusively from damaged heart muscle
Excess blood creatine
Cross-Reactive Antigen Group
A procedure used to surgically establish an airway in the patient’s throat when intubation isn’t possibly because of swelling or bleeding
(slang) Short for hematocrit
Crohn’s disease
Regional Ententis, Ileitis–Chronic recurring inflammatory disease that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract but most often affects the  colon or ileum
Crossed Treatments
Two or more study treatments that are used in sequence (e.g., as in a crossover design) or in combination (e.g., as in a factorial treatment structure)
Cross Infection
The passage of infection from individual to another
Treatment crossover. A patient who does not comply to assigned treatment and begins to adhere to one of the other treatments. Patient may be a drop-in or drop-out, depending on the direction of the crossover
Crossover Design
Crossover treatment design. Patients are given treatments in sequence, and crossover is determined by time, not clinical outcomes
Colon Rectal Surgery, Colorectal Surgery, Cherry Red Spot, Congenital Rubella Syndrome
Family of plants that includes  collard greens, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli and others
Crude Death Rate
The number of deaths in a year divided by the population size
Cruveilhier-Baumgarten Syndrome
Portal hypertension with extensive collateral circulation through the paraumbilical veins and abdominal vessels and associated with a vascular bruit over the distended veins. Distinction may be made between the disease (patent umbilical vein with absence of liver disease) and syndrome (paraumbilical vein involvement due to portal hypertension associated with liver cirrhosis)
The use of intense cold as a treatment
Cryptococcus Neoformans
A fungus, pathogenic in the immune suppressed, which is acquired via the respiratory tract. Cryptococcosis most frequently causes meningitis, with symptoms of headache and stiff neck
Of unknown or obscure cause
Crystals in the urine
Culture & Sensitivity
Cyclosporine A
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Clinical Site Monitoring Group
Clinical Science Review Committee
Colon, Transverse, Computed Tomography
Cholesterol-Triglyceride (ratio)
CT or CAT Scan
An x-ray procedure that uses a computer to produce detailed pictures of organs in the body
Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte. See Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-CTL

© Vikki Shaw