Glossary of Medical Terms – B | Hepatitis Central

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Glossary of Medical Terms – B

b, ß
Beta, the second letter of the Greek alphabet; symbol for the b chain of hemoglobin
B Cell
Specialized white blood cell responsible for the body’s immunity. B cells play a central role in antibody production
Bile Acid, Biliary Artresia, Bachelor of Arts
Symbol for barium
The presence of bacilli in the blood
Bacteria in the blood, condition may be dangerous for people with a weakened immune system or abnormal heart valves
Any of various one celled microorganisms of the plant kingdom, existing as free living organisms or as parasites of other organisms. Bacteria reproduces through subdivision. Bacteria is classified according to their behavior and shape. Group of micro-organisms that are a single cell approximately 1 micron in transverse diameter. Some bacteria cause disease in man, requiring treatment with an antibiotic
Bacterial Infection
Bacteria are group of micro-organisms that are a single cell approximately 1 micron in transverse diameter. Some bacteria cause disease in man, requiring treatment with an antibiotic
Bacterial Proteins
Proteins found in any species of bacterium
Capable of killing bacteria
Anti-bacteria drug, Bactericide, Agent that destroys bacteria
Bacterial vaccine
Bacteria study related
Bacteriological Specimen
Refers to any body fluid, secretion, or tissue sent to the laboratory where smears and cultures for bacteria will be performed. The specimen may consist of blood, sputum, urine, spinal fluid, material obtained at biopsy, etc
Very delicate bacterial virus with considerable variation in structure which may attack and destroy bacteria cells under certain conditions. Contains a protein coat and a nucleic acid core. Viruses that infect and kill harmful bacteria
Antibiotic, term used to describe a substance that stops the growth of bacteria
Tiny, single-celled microorganism, commonly known as a germ; some bacteria, called pathogens, cause disease
Brand name of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole
Manual respiration for a patient having breathing trouble that uses a handheld squeeze bag attached to a face mask
A sac that can be inserted into a body cavity or tube and distended with air or gas. To distend with air or gas, to inflate
Distending any cavity of the body with air or gas for therapeutic purposes
British Approved Name, an official nonproprietary name approved by the British Pharmacopoeia Commission
An object or appliance that confines or restricts while allowing a limited or desired degree of movement. A strip that holds together or binds two or more separate objects
Band Cell
A variety of neutrophil which appears in the blood in states of acute bacterial infection
The act of encircling and binding with a thin strip of material
A poison. See Arnica
Banti’s Disease
A disorder characterized by congestion and great enlargement of the spleen usually accompanied by anemia, leukopenia, and cirrhosis of the liver
Also known as Oregon Grape Root. Used in small doses, Barberry tonic is believed to be an effective treatment for heartburn, ulcers, stomach upset, and to stimulate the appetite. Herbal literature frequently recommends Barberry tinctures as a treatment for liver problems such as jaundice and hepatitis. Also considered effective in lowering blood pressure, reducing bronchial constriction, reducing heart rate and respiration, and as a palliative for menstrual irregularities. Also used as a topical antiseptic. Exhibits some antibacterial activity, accounting for its useas an antiseptic when applied to the skin. Also known to possess sedative qualities, and can act to stimulate the uterus and lower blood pressure
The oldest of the barbiturates, a long-acting compound administered orally as a sedative and hypnotic. Barbital Sodium the soluble monosodium salt of barbital, having the same actions and uses as the base
British name for Barbital
Any of a class of sedative-hypnotic agents derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid and classified into long-, intermediate-, short-, and ultrashort-acting classes. The ultrashort-acting barbiturates, e.g., thiopental, are used as intravenous anesthetics. The long-acting barbiturate phenobarbital is an important anticonvulsant used in the treatment of epilepsy. Many other barbiturates were widely used as sedatives or hypnotics, but benzodiazepines have replaced them in most uses. Some of these have a high potential for abuse and are Schedule II controlled substances.
Group of sedative drugs that reduce activity in the brain; are habit-forming and are possibly fatal when taken with alcohol
Main ingredient of barium sulfate, given by mouth or rectum to patients undergoing tests in the barium studies. A pale yellowish, metallic element belonging to the alkaline earths, whose acid-soluble salts are poisonous
Barium Enema
Lower gastrointestinal (GI) series. Diagnostic procedure in which x-rays are taken after barium sulfate is given to the patient by enema. The barium sulfate helps to outline the colon and rectum so that they can be seen clearly on x-rays
Barium Meal
Upper gastrointestinal (Gl) series. Diagnostic procedure in which x-rays are taken after the patient swallows barium sulfate. The barium sulfate helps to outline the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum so that they can be seen clearly on x-rays
Barium Solution
A liquid containing barium sulfate, which shows up on x-rays. It outlines organs of the body so they can be seen on x-ray film
Barley Grass
Used for for stomach and duodenum disorders, and for pancreatitis, ideal anti-inflammatory substance. High in iron, calcium, all the essential amino acids, vitamin C, the flavonoids, vitamin B-12, many minerals, and enzymes
Barrett’s Esophagus
A change in the cells of the tissue that lines the bottom of the esophagus. The esophagus may become irritated when the contents of the stomach back up (reflux). Reflux that happens often over a long period of time can lead to Barrett’s esophagus
An obstruction
A chalky liquid used to coat the inside of organs so that they will show up on an x-ray
Barium Enema X-ray
Lower GI series
Barium Meal
Upper GI series
A combining form meaning heavy or difficult
Pertaining to or situated near a base
Basal Metabolic Rate
Lowest rate that a person can possibly use energy and remain alive; at this rate, only absolutely necessary functions such as breathing are maintained
An observation or value that represents the normal background level, or an initial level, of a measurable quantity; used for comparison with values representing response to experimenta intervention or an environmental stimulus, usually implying that the baseline and response values refer to the same individual or system
Baseline Characteristic
A variable that is measured, observed, or assessed on a patient at or shortly before treatment assignment and the initiation of treatment
Baseline Data
The set of data collected on a specific patient or set of patients prior to randomization
Baseline Examination
An examination that is carried out as part of the baseline visit and that is designed to assess a patient’s eligibility for enrollment into the trial and to produce required baseline data
Base Pair
A twin pair of nucleotides contained in a nucleic acid strand, which are linked together by hydrogen bonds
Excellent remedy to stop vomiting
Important or prominent
A structure, cell, or other histologic element staining readily with basic dyes. 2. a granular leukocyte with an irregularly shaped, relatively pale-staining nucleus that is partially constricted into two lobes, and with cytoplasm that contains coarse, bluish-black granules of variable size. Basophils contain vasoactive amines, e.g., histamine and serotonin, which are released on appropriate stimulation
The wood of the Linden tree. Long used in American folk medicine as a decoction of the wood, bark, or flowers for bile and liver disorders
Any set, series, or grouping of similar things, as a battery of tests. A set or series of cells which afford an electric current
Also known as Wax Myrtle and Candleberry. Used as a tonic and stimulant to help the body’s defense against ailments such as flu, fever,coughs, colds, headache, and sore throat. Also considered an effective remedy for bloody stools, diarrhea, and heavy menstrual bleeding. Used as an astringent, helps to dry up and protect exposed membranes. Also prepared as a gargle for treatment for early symptoms of colds and sore throat. Often applied to the skin as poultice to treat boils and skin ulcers. In large doses it is considered an emetic agent to produce vomiting
Basal Body Temperature
Biliary Colic
Branched Chain Amino Acid
B Cell
White blood cell that makes antibodies to fight infections caused by foreign proteins. One of the two major types of lymphocytes (white blood cells, WBC), derived from bone marrow lymphocytes
Biliary Cholesterol Output
B Complexes
Membrane stabilizers. Helps nerve functions. Natural tranquilizers, or anti-stress vitamins. B vitamins are water soluble. B complex must be taken with food already in the stomach. If taken on an empty stomach, pain and nausea are a common side effect. If the B complex is being absorbed effectively, the urine will be bright yellow and have a pungent smell due to the riboflavonoids present
Abbreviation for L. bis di¢e, twice a day
Bile Duct Ligation
(Branched DNA) Assay–One of two tests that reveal the presence in the bloodstream of very small quantities of DNA and RNA. i.e. RNA fragments from the hepatitis C virus. It is less sensitive than PCR
Barium Enema
Bee Pollen
Has an anti-microbial effect. Effective for fighting depression, fatigue, colon disorders and cancer. Used it in the treatment of hay fever. Bee Pollen contains calcium, lipids, carbohydrates, iron, manganese, free amino acids, phosphorous, sodium, aluminum, magnesium, carotene, copper, potassium, pantothenic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), vitamins D and E, enzymes, co-enzymes, nicotinic acid, xanthophyll,  pigments, and sterols
Bee Propolis
Waxy substance collected by honey bees which contain phytotonizides. Excellent aid against bacterial infections. Stimulates the immune system. Stimulates phagocytosis. Used for inflammation of the mucous membranes of the mouth and throat, tonsillitis, halitosis, ulcers, dry cough, and acne. Highly complex mixture of balsams, waxes, oils, resins, and a small amount of pollen
Bee’s Wax
Natural base for the preparation of salves and herbal ointments
The deadly nightshade, Atropa belladonna L. (Solanaceae), a perennial plant indigenous to central and southern Europe and cultivated in North America; it contains various anticholinergic alkaloids, including atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which are used medicinally. Ingestion of belladonna or its alkaloids can cause poisoning
Trademark for preparations of diphenhydramine hydrochloride. Sometimes given to relieve itching that is associated with Liver Disease
Not malignant or cancerous. Won’t spread to other parts of the body
Bernstein Test
Diagnostic procedure used to determine whether heartburn symptoms are caused by acid coming up from the stomach and irritating the esophagus. This test consists of dripping a mild acid, similar to stomach acid, through a tube that has been placed in the esophagus and waiting to see if discomfort develops
Beryllium poisoning, usually involving the lungs and less often the skin, subcutaneous tissues, lymph nodes, liver, and other structures. Beryllium fumes, its oxide and salts, and finely divided dust all may cause a tissue reaction when inhaled or implanted in the skin. The acute form is basically a toxic or allergic pneumonitis sometimes accompanied by rhinitis, pharyngitis, and tracheobronchitis. The more common chronic form is characterized by the development of granulomas and a diffuse interstitial inflammatory reaction; the clinical and pathological findings may be indistinguishable from those of sarcoidosis
Beta Blocker
Type of drug used to treat high blood pressure and heart disorders by reducing the strength and rate of the pumping by the heart
Beta Carotene
Vitamin A–Pigment found in orange vegetables and fruits, which the body converts to vitamin A; possibly protects against cancer. Most abundant of the carotenoids. Beta carotene has strong provitamin A activity. Stronger antioxidant than vitamin A. Studies have shown that several carotenoids other than betacarotene are potent antioxidants that provide profound health benefits. The scientific community has recognized the importance of natural mixed carotenoids including beta carotene. Medical research shows that foods rich in Beta Carotene will help reduce the risk of lung cancer & certain oral cancers. Beta Carotene is Non Toxic. Deficiency of Beta Carotene may result in night blindness, increased susceptibility to infections, loss of smell & appetite, rough, dry, scaly skin, fatigue, lack of tearing, defective teeth, and inhibited gum growth
Trade name for povidone-iodine, a preparation used as a surgical scrub that is available in liquid and aerosol forms
Bleeding Esophageal Varices
Bile Flow
Biologic False Positive
Deviation of results from the truth or mechanisms leading to such deviation, e.g., analysis bias, confounding factors, measurement bias, selection bias, withdrawal bias, and others
Bias, Analysis
Deviation of results or inferences from the truth resulting from flaws in the analysis or interpretation of results
Bias, Confounding Factor
A confounding factor is an variable which is related to one or more of the variables defined in a study. A confounding factor may (1) mask an actual association or (2) falsely demonstrate an apparent association between the study variables where no real association between them exists. i.e. Alcohol intake may appear to be positively associated with laryngeal cancer but the actual association may be with the confounding factor of cigarette smoking, i.e., people who drink alcohol may be at increased risk for laryngeal cancer because they may also smoke cigarettes. If confounding factors are not measured and considered, bias may result
Bias, Measurement Bias
Systematic measurement error. For example, a sphygmomanometer which is not correctly calibrated will produce biased blood pressure readings
Bias, Selection Bias
Error due to differences in characteristics of those participants who are selected for a study as compared to those not selected
Bias, Withdrawal
Error due to specific characteristics of those participants who choose to withdraw from a study or become lost to follow up, as opposed to those who remain
Brand name of clarithromycin
Abbreviation for L. bi¢be, drink
Abbreviation for L. bis in di¢e, twice a day
Lasting for two days, as a fever
A membrane consisting of two molecular layers, such as the cell membrane or the envelope of some viruses
Vaccinium Corymbosum. Bilberry is a perennial shrub that has long been used throughout Holland, Germany and Scandinavia for its health promoting effects. Numerous clinical studies have shown that bilberry contains active ingredients which affect proper eye function. Bilberries are particularly rich in the red pigment antioxidants called anthocyanosides. Studies revealed that the anthocyanosides bind to capillaries, which are found extensively in the eyes and help maintain their integrity, reduce their fragility and promote their repair. Reduces general eye strain and enhances vision in low light conditions. Bilberry fruit extract also possesses strong antiviral and antibacterial activity
Yellowish, brown, or green fluid made by the liver; in the small intestine, it aids in digestion, function is to remove waste from the liver and break down fats as food is digested. 2. Fluid secreted by the liver and poured into the small intestine via the bile ducts. Important constituents are conjugated bile salts, cholesterol, phospholipid, bilirubin diglucuronide, and electrolytes. Bile is alkaline due to its bicarbonate content, golden brown to greenish yellow in color, and has a bitter taste. Hepatic bile secreted by the liver, is concentrated in the gallbladder. Its formation depends on active secretion by liver cells into the bile canaliculi. Excretion of bile salts by liver cells and secretion of bicarbonate rich fluid by ductular cells in response to secretin are the major factors which normally determine the volume of secretion. Conjugated bile salts and phospholipid normally dissolve cholesterol in a mixed micellar solution. In the upper small intestine, bile is in part responsible for alkalinizing the intestinal content, and conjugated bile salts play an essential role in fat absorption by dissolving the products of fat digestion (fatty acids and monoglycerides) in water soluble micelles. Also Called gall
B Bile
Bile from the gallbladder; samples are obtained by use of a duodenal tube after gallbladder contraction stimulation, usually with magnesium sulfate. It may occur despite absence of the gallbladder and contains up to 1 gram of bilirubin per 100 ml.
C Bile
Hepatic bile; it is obtained from a duodenal drainage tube after the gallbladder has been emptied
Cystic Bile
Gallbladder bile the bile that is held for some time in the gallbladder before moving into the intestine
Limy Bile
Bile containing an increased amount of calcium, usually as the carbonate but sometimes as the phosphate or bilirubinate. It varies in consistency from a thick, milky fluid to a putty, gel, or solid. It is usually suspended in a thin, more watery bile. Called also milk of calcium bile
Milk of Calcium Bile
Limy bile
White Bile
The colorless liquid containing mucoproteins and calcium salts sometimes found in the gallbladder in obstructions above the entrance of the cystic duct. Its accumulation in the distended biliary tract is called hydrops
Bile Acids and Salts
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. Have been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones
Bile Acid Sequestrants
One type of cholesterol lowering medication, including colestipol and cholestyramine. Sequestrants bind with cholesterol containing bile acids in the intestine and remove them in bowel movements
Bile Canaliculi
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called Bile Capillaries. Fine tubular canals running between liver cells, throughout the parenchyma, usually occurring singly between each adjacent pair of cells, and forming a three-dimensional network of polyhedral meshes, with a single cell in each mesh
Bile Capillaries
See Bile Canaliculi
Bile Duct
A duct by which bile passes from the liver or gallbladder to the duodenum
Bile Duct-Common
The extrahepatic bile duct formed by the junction of the hepatic and cystic ducts. It is part of the excretory apparatus of the liver
Bile Ducts
Any of the ducts that convey bile in and from the liver; called also biliary ducts and gall ducts
Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic
Passages external to the liver for the conveyance of bile. These include the common bile duct and the common hepatic duct. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct
Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct
Bile Duct Obstruction, Extrahepatic
Impairment of bile flow through the hepatic, cystic, or common bile ducts or Vater’s ampulla. Sometimes called surgical jaundice
Bile Duct Stricture
Abnormal narrowing of the common bile duct. A potential cause for biliary obstruction. Risk factors are  gallstones, pancreatitis, prior surgery, and trauma. Symptoms include abdominal pain, chills, fever, and jaundice
Bile Ductule
The biliary channel linking the canal of Hering to the terminal bile duct within the terminal portal tract
Bile Fluke
Chinese Liver Fluke
Bile Leak
A hole in the bile-duct system that causes bile to spill into the abdominal cavity
Bile Nephrosis
Acute renal failure occurring in a patient with liver failure. Exact cause is unclear, but those with alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic cirrhosis are at greatest risk. Symptoms include abdominal swelling, confusion, decreased or absent urine production, delirium, jaundice, nausea and vomiting. Prognosis is poor
Bile Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum which is caused by the escape of bile into the peritoneal cavity
Bile Reflux
Reflux of bile mainly into the upper digestive tract, but also into the pancreas
Bile Salt
Amphipathic compounds that aid digestion and lipid absorption, derived from steroids and have some detergent properties
Bile Vessel
Any of numerous fine channels within the liver that conduct bile
A combining form denoting relationship to the bile
Pertaining to the bile, bile ducts or gallbladder
Biliary Apparatus
The parts concerned in the formation, conduction, and storage of bile, including the secreting cells of the liver, bile ducts, and gallbladder
Biliary Atresia
Congenital condition in which bile from the liver cannot reach the intestine because the bile ducts have developed poorly or not at all
Biliary Cirrhosis
Rare form of liver disease which results in the irreversible destruction of the liver and bile ducts. The cause is unknown, but is thought to be an autoimmune mechanism. Cirrhosis of the liver due to inflammation or obstruction of the bile ducts resulting in the accumulation of bile in and functional impairment of the liver
Biliary Cirrhosis of Children
Secondary biliary cirrhosis due to congenital atresia of the bile ducts; called also infantile liver
Biliary Cirrhotic Liver
One in which the bile ducts are clogged and distended, the substance of the organ being inflamed; due to biliary cirrhosis
Biliary Colic
Severe pain in the upper right section of the abdomen, usually caused by a gallstone passing out of the bladder or through the bile ducts
Biliary Endoprosthesis
A tube inserted into a  blocked or narrowed bile duct to improve bile flow
Biliary Fistula
Abnormal passage communicating with the biliary tract
Biliary Obstruction
Blockage of the bile ducts can occur by bile duct cysts, bile duct inflammation, bile duct stricture pancreas (pancreatic tumor or swelling), stone, trauma, tumor, or enlarged lymph nodes. When bile duct obstruction occurs, bile accumulates in the liver and jaundice develops due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream
Biliary Peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum which is caused by the escape of bile into the peritoneal cavity
Biliary Scan
Test that uses a radioactive dye to look for bile duct obstruction or gallbladder inflammation. A special dye is injected into a vein that tends to collect mainly in the liver. It is then excreted in the bile where it makes its way to the gallbladder. A gamma camera measures the dye and generates an image of the  biliary system and gallbladder
Biliary Stenosis
Narrowing or constriction of a bile duct
Biliary Stricture
A narrowing of the biliary tract from scar tissue. The scar tissue may result from injury, disease, pancreatitis, infection, or gallstones
Biliary Tract
System of organs and ducts through which bile is made and transported from the liver to the small intestine. Organs, ducts, and other structures that participate in the secretion, storage, and delivery of bile into the duodenum. Biliary tract refers to the bile ducts within the liver, the common bile duct (connecting the liver and gallbladder to the small intestine) and the cystic duct (short duct that connects the common bile duct to the gallbladder)
Biliary Tree
All passageways inside and outside the liver that carry bile to the intestines
Biliary, of Vomiting
Yellow or green coloration, due to the presence of bile produced by the liver
Production and excretion of bile
Pertaining to the gallbladder and digestive tract
Brownish green pigment found in old bile and human gallstones. Derivative of bilirubin
The production or formation of bile
Pertaining to biligenesis. Biligenic
Producing bile
An insoluble ingredient of gallstones
Name applied to the amorphous or crystalline mass obtained from bile by the action of ether and alcohol. It is composed of a mixture of the sodium salts of the bile acids
Of, pertaining to, or included by, two lines; as, bilinear coordinates
Of or relating to bile. Marked by or affected with disordered liver function and especially excessive secretion of bile
Asymptom complex comprising nausea, abdominal discomfort, headache, and constipation, formerly attributed to excessive secretion of bile
A green pigment from gallstones
A purple pigment, occurring in the bile of ruminants; derived from chlorophyll
Orange-yellow pigment in bile, causing jaundice if it builds up in the blood and skin; the levels of bilirubin in the blood are used to diagnose liver disease. Serum total bilirubin is increased in hepatocellular damage (infectious hepatitis, alcoholic and other toxic hepatopathy, neoplasms), intra- and extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction, intravascular and extravascular hemolysis, physiologic neonatal jaundice, Crigler-Najjar syndrome, Gilbert’s disease, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, and fructose intolerance. Disproportionate elevation of direct (conjugated) bilirubin is seen in cholestasis and late in the course of chronic liver disease. Indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin tends to predominate in hemolysis and Gilbert’s disease. Decreased serum total bilirubin is probably not of clinical significance but has been observed in iron deficiency anemia. A yellow-orange compound produced by the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells.
Conjugated Bilirubin
Direct bilirubin bilirubin that has been taken up by the liver cells and conjugated to form the water-soluble bilirubin diglucuronide.
Indirect Bilirubin
Unconjugated Bilirubin.
Unconjugated Bilirubin
The lipid-soluble form of bilirubin that circulates in loose association with the plasma proteins; called also indirect bilirubin.
A salt of bilirubin
The presence of bilirubin in the blood; see hyperbilirubinemia
Pertaining to bilirubin
Presence of bilirubin in the urine
The presence of bile pigments in the urine
Green pigment that occurs in bile and is an intermediate in the degradation of hemoglobin heme groups to bilirubin. It transforms into the red/orange bile pigment bilirubin
Having two lobes
Having two lobules
An encapsulated collection of bile in the peritoneal cavity
Binary Outcome Measure
An outcome measure that can assume only one of two values, such as in a trial with death as the outcome measure
Ability to constipate
Combining form denoting relationship to life, or to living organisms
Having an effect on or eliciting a response from living tissue
Effectiveness. The degree to which a drug or other substance becomes available to the target tissue after administration. Measure of how much of an administered drug is absorbed into the bloodstream, actually reaching the intended site of action in the body. For example, medicine is absorbed from the GI tract, travels through the bloodstream, and reaches the organ tissues, where it works to fight infection, prevent rejection, etc
Chemicals from which living organisms are made
Series of processes by which living organisms degrade pollutant chemicals, pesticides, organic wastes, and implantable materials
Use of engineering principles to solve biomedical problems. i.e. Creating chemicals or drugs that do not occur naturally. Also known as genetic engineering
Technique used to gain control over a function that is normally automatic (such as blood pressure or pulse rate); the function is monitored and relaxation techniques are used to change it to a desired level
Any of a group of colored flavones found in many fruits which aid in the absorption and metabolism of ascorbic acid. Bioflavonoids are needed for the maintenance of collagen and capillary walls and may aid in protection against infection
Biological Factors
are compounds with biological or physiological activity made by living organisms
Biological Products
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or agents of organic origin, usually obtained by biological methods or assay, that depend for their action on the processes affecting immunity. They are used especially in diagnosis and treatment of disease (as vaccines or pollen extracts)
Biological products are differentiated from Biological Factors in that the Biological Factors are compounds with biological or physiological activity made by living organisms
Biological Response Modifiers
BRMs — Substances, either natural or synthesized, that boost, direct, or restore normal immune defenses. BRMs include interferons, interleukins, thymic hormones, and monoclonal antibodies
Biological Therapy
(Also known as Biotherapy)–Treatment with substances called biological response modifiers that can stimulate the immune system to fight disease more effectively. Also called immunotherapy
Biological Warfare
The deliberate spreading of disease amongst humans, animals, and plants. Diseases are caused when small numbers of living micro-organisms enter into the target population of humans, animals, or plants. These micro-organisms multiply, and, after an incubation period, the symptoms of the disease become apparent. In some cases, micro-organisms produce toxins—non-living toxic chemicals—that cause symptoms. Depending upon the biological agent chosen, the resulting disease cause incapacitation or death of the target population.
Excision for diagnostic study. Examination of living or live tissue.
Types of biopsies–Aspiration, Blind, Colonic, Duodenal, Esophageal, Fine needle, Fine needle aspiration, Hot, Intestinal, jejunal drainage, Large forceps, Large particle, Liver, Mucosal, Percutaneous Liver, Peroral jejunal, Rectal, Scan directed, Snare excision, Transcutaneous, Transpapillary, Transvenous Liver
Biopsy, Needle
Biopsy of deep tissues done with a hollow needle
Biopsy, Needle Aspiration
Needle biopsy in which tissue is removed by aspiration into a syringe
Biopsy, Sponge
Biopsy performed on matter collected with a sponge from a lesion
The use of living organisms or their products to make or modify a substance. These include recombinant DNA techniques (genetic engineering) and hybridoma technology
Essential coenzyme that assists in the making of fatty acids and in the burning of carbohydrates and fats for body heat and energy. Also essential for function of red blood cells and hemoglobin synthesis. Helps in the utilization of Pantothenic acid, Folic acid, Protein, and Vitamin B-12. Promotes healthy hair. Symptoms of Deficiency of Biotin are drowsiness, muscle pain, loss of appetite, extreme exhaustion, depression, and/or grayish skin color
Birch Bark
Betula Alba –Also known as canoe birch, paper birch and white birch. Used as an astringent, diaphoretic and diuretic. Used as bath additive for chronic or severe  skin problems. Problems sleeping, a decoction can be used before going to bed as a mild sedative
Bismuth Subsalicylate
Nonprescription medicine such as Pepto-Bismol. Used to treat diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, and nausea. It is also part of the treatment for ulcers caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
Bitter Root
Apocynum Androsaemifolium — Also known as Dogsbane Milkweedand Flytrap. Also been called Vegetable Trocar.   One of the digitalis group of cardiac tonics, Apocynum, is the most powerful in slowing the pulse, strong action on the vaso-motor system. An irritant to mucous membranes, can cause catharsis and nausea. Helpful in dropsy’s due to heart-failure, and ascites of hepatic cirrhosis. Used as an alterative in scrofula, rheumatism, and syphilis. Absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract being very irregular. Use with Caution!
Black Birch
Betula Lenta — Also known as Cherry Birch, Mahogany Birch, Mountain Mahogany, Spice Birch, and Sweet Birch. Tea made from Black Birch is used for urinary problems, and intestinal worms.  When taken internally it is good for treating boils,diarrhea, and rheumatism. Also used as an astringent, anthelmintic, and diuretic
Black Cohosh
Cimicifuga Racemosa–Also known as Bugbane, Bugwort, Black Snakeroot and Squawroot. Used to treat asthma, bronchial spasms, bronchitis, whooping coughfatigue, rheumatism, neuralgia, sore throat, stimulate menstrual flow, ease the pain of childbirth, and relief from the symptoms of menopause. Antispasmodic for muscle pains and cramps. Also used for anxiety and nervousness, cough suppressant and expectorant, a diaphoretic for eliminating toxins. Contains compounds that support its uses as an anti-inflammatory agent and sedative. Consuming large doses can cause dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. Pregnant women should only use Black Cohosh under the supervision of their health  care provider, Black Cohosh has been known for stimulating the uterus to speed childbirth, large doses could lead to premature birth
Black Haw
Known as a uterine tonic. Used for menstrual cramps. Black Haw contains salicin, a pain reliever much like aspirin. Helps to relieve head pain and reduce fever. Do Not take if you are pregnant. Never give to children under the age of 16 suffering from fevers, flu or chicken pox. Discontinue use if you get an upset stomach, or experience ringing in your ears
Black Thistle
Used to treat liver disorders, and regulate the menstrual cycle. Said to improve memory by increasing oxygen to the brain through improved circulation
Black Walnut
Juglans Nigra–Used to balance sugar levels and burn up excessive toxins and fatty materials. Helps relieve constipation, useful against parasitic and fungal infections, eliminate warts. Helps to promote bowel regularity and acts an antiparasitic. The extract is reputed to be beneficial for herpes, eczema, skin parasites and psoriasis when rubbed onto the skin. Has been known to kill ringworm and tapeworm
Organ located in the pelvis whose function is to collect and store urine until it is expelled
Bladderwack–Natural source of Iodine. Anti-inflammatory, Anti-rheumatic, Used for fatigue and convalescence. Stimulates the thyroid and increases metabolic rate
Bleomycin Sulfate
Blessed Thistle
Also known as Holy Thistle, Marian, Holy Thistle, Our Lady’s Thistle, and St. Mary’s. Do not confuse this with Milk Thistle. Used as an appetite stimulant, to treat constipation and flatulence. Blessed Thistle tea is used for treating a variety of liver problems, such as hepatitis and jaundice. Blessed Thistle can lead to nausea and vomiting if taken in excess
A condition imposed on an individual (or group of individuals) for the purpose of keeping that individual or group of individuals from knowing or learning of some fact or observation, such as treatment assignment. Also called a “mask”
The condition of having a blind in place, e.g., as in a single-, double-, or triple-blinded trial
Feeling of fullness in the abdomen, often occurring after meals
A group, quantity, section, or segment that is considered as a unit for some purpose, procedure, process, or action. 2. (clinical trials) Treatment block. Analyses are conducted for each block, and then combined over blocks
Block Size
The number of individual elements making up a block. Treatment block size
The process of establishing defined groups, as in a treatment allocation schedule designed to ensure a specific allocation ratio
Considered a circulating “tissue” composed of a fluid portion (plasma) with suspended formed elements (red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets); blood (arterial blood) is the means by which oxygen and nutrients are transported to tissues; [venous blood] is the means by which carbon dioxide and metabolic by-products are transported for excretion
Blood Ammonia
The test is primarily used to evaluate patients with mental status changes; elevated blood ammonia supports a diagnosis of hepatic encephalopathy. Disrupted hepatic blood flow patterns in cirrhotic patients cause blood ammonia to elevate after milder degrees of liver failure in that group.
Blood Bactericidal Activity
Native bactericidal property of blood due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin
Blood & Blood Products
Components of blood including red cells, platelets and plasma which are separated out by blood banks. Plasma is processed and purified to produce specific medical purposes, eg. Factor VIII
Blood Borne Substances
Substances that are present in the blood and are carried throughout the body
Blood Borne Viruses
Any virus which may be transmitted through the parenteral route
Blood Brain Barrier
A selective barrier between brain blood vessels and brain tissues whose effect is to restrict what may pass from the blood into the brain. Certain compounds readily cross the blood brain barrier. Others are completely blocked
Blood Cholesterol
Cholesterol that is manufactured in the liver and absorbed from the food we eat and is carried in the blood for use by all parts of the body. High levels of blood cholesterol lead to coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis
Blood Clot
Semisolid mass of blood that forms to help seal and prevent bleeding from a damaged vessel
Blood Cultures
Samples of blood tested for the presence of micro-organisms, typically bacteria
Blood Gases
The content of oxygen, carbon dioxide and associated biochemical components in a sample of blood, usually arterial
Blood Pressure
A measure of how well blood circulates through your arteries, listen in the format of the systolic pressure over the diastolic pressure. Normal blood pressure is about 120/80
Blood Root
Also known as Indian Plant, Indian Paint, Indian Red Paint, Red Paint Root, Red Puccoon, Red Root, Pauson, Sanguinaria, and Tetterwort. Has been used for for treatment of skin cancers, and also for eczema, sores, warts, as well as other dermal & epidermal problems as a topical preparations. Used internally in herbal preparations for  emphysema, chronic bronchitis and congestive lung conditions. Also used as a diuretic, expectorant, emetic, febrifuge, emmenagogue, tonic and stimulant
Blood Sugar
Carbohydrate, mainly glucose, of the blood
Blood Swab
A blood sample taken with a cotton-tipped stick
Blood Transfusion
Introduction of new matching blood into the bloodstream. The process of infusing blood products into a patient to raise the individuals concentration of red blood cells. Blood is typed (A, B, O, or AB) and crossmatched (mixed together to see if its compatible) prior to transfusion
Blood Type
Category used to describe a person’s blood according to the kinds of proteins present on the surface of the red blood cells
Blood Urea Nitrogen
A waste-product in the blood and urine, measurement of which provides a measure of kidney function or dehydration
Blood Viscosity
Internal resistance of the blood to shear forces. The in vitro measure of whole blood viscosity is of limited clinical utility because it bears little relationship to the actual viscosity within the circulation, but an increase in the viscosity of circulating blood can contribute to morbidity in patients suffering from disorders such as sickle cell anemia and polycythemia
Both Lower Quadrants
Blind Loop Syndrome, Basic Life Support
Blue Cohosh
Caulophyllum Thalictroides–Also known as Squaw Root and Papoose Root. Used as a diuretic to remove excess fluids, an expectorant to treat congestion, and a diaphoretic to eliminate toxins by inducing sweating. Stimulates intestinal activity, raises respiration, and elevates blood pressure. Stimulates uterine contractions and induces childbirth. Should not be used by expectant mothers except during the last month of pregnancy, under the guidance of an experienced herbalist or  your health care provider
Blue Flag
Used for treating hepatic congestion due to venous or lymphatic stasis. Specific indications include rheumatic conditions, and chronic hepatitis, scrophulous skin conditions,  (apparently aids skin healing by working through the liver) herpes, eczema, psoriasis, uterine fibroids and enlarged thyroid gland
Blue Vervain
Also Known as American Vervain, False Vervain, Vervain, Simpler’s Joy, Indian Hyssop, Wild Hyssop, Traveler’s Joy, and Purvain. Known as a natural tranquilizer. Used for insomnia, nervous disorders, elimination of intestinal worms, expectorant, diaphoretic, antiperiodic, tonic, emetic, vulnerary and vermifuge. Used externally heals wounds and sores
B-lymphocytes are blood cells of the immune system derived from the bone marrow and spleen involved in the production of antibodies. B-lymphocytes float through all body fluids, are able to detect the presence of foreign invaders, and produce antibodies on their own and when primed by T-lymphocytes. B-lymphocytes can later differentiate into plasma and memory cells. B-cells mediate the “humoral” immune response
Basal Metabolic Rate
Basal Metabolism, Bowel Movement
Bone Morphogenetic Protein
Bone Marrow Transplant
Bowels Not Open
Bowel, Bowel Obstruction, Bowel Open
Body Fluids
Liquid components of living organisms
Large amount at once. A large dose of a drug that is given (usually intravenously) at the beginning of treatment to raise blood-level concentrations to a therapeutic level
Bone Marrow
Soft tissue located in the cavities of the bones where blood cells are formed, including erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets
Used for treating the symptoms that accompany influenza. Used to help clear the upper respiratory tract of mucous congestion
Additional dose of a vaccine taken after the first dose to maintain or renew the first one
Bowels Open Regularly
Used for for reducing fever and for restoring vitality while recovering from illness, recommended for peritonitis and pleurisy for its calmative and anti-inflammatory action. Its calmative properties make it useful for treating nervous conditions. Has some antidotal effect against several poisons
Rumbling sounds caused by gas moving through the intestines (also called stomach “growling”)
Mineral that may play a role in maintaining strong bones, affecting calcium and magnesium metabolism and proper membrane function
Boron Protenate
Critical for normal cell function and certain enzyme functions. Necessary ultratrace mineral for building healthy bones and cell membranes
A patient who returns to the ER with the same complaint shortly after being released
Collective name for both small and large intestines
Bowel Disimpaction
Manual removal of impacted fecal matter from a patient’s rectum
Blood Pressure
Bile Phospholipid Concentration
Beats per minute
Bile Phospholipid Output
Blood Per Rectum
Bowel Rest
Slow heart rate, usually below 60 beats per minute in adults
Brain Death
When the brain has permanently stopped working, as determined by a neurological surgeon, artificial support systems may maintain functions such as heartbeat and respiration for a few days
Brazilian Guarana
Astringent and strong stimulant. Increases physical endurance and stamina. High caffeine content
Bright Red Blood
Bright Red Blood Per Rectum
Breath Tests
Any tests done on exhaled air
Benign Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholestasis
Brigham Tea
Ma-Huang–Also known as Mormon tea. High in copper and iron, used to treat anemia. Also used for asthma, allergies, bronchitis, coughs, hayfever, congestive conditions,arthritis, fluid retention, colds, flu. Should not be used by those with severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma, coronary thrombosis, prostate enlargement, or anyone using MAOI anti-depressants
Brimstone Liver
An enlarged liver of a deep-yellow color, seen in some cases of congenital syphilis
Biological Response Modifier
Important source of Vitamin K, helps prevent stomach and colon cancer. High in fiber, vitamins C and K, and provitamin A carotenoids. Detoxifys carcinogens and  helps to flush them out of the system
Helps inhibit pro-inflammatory compounds, similar to non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drugs reducing  pain and swelling without side effects. Said to speed healing time by 50%
Used for a dye derived from phenolphthalein that is used in the form of its bitter white crystalline disodium salt in a liver function test
Air passages that lead from the windpipe to the lungs
Infection caused by a virus in the bronchioles (the smallest airways in the lungs), mainly affecting young children
Drug that widens the airways in the lungs to improve breathing and to relieve muscle contraction or buildup of mucus
Temporary narrowing of the airways in the lungs, either as a result of muscle contraction or inflammation; may be caused by asthma, infection, lung disease, or an allergic reaction
Bronze Liver
The bronze-colored liver seen in malaria, which results from deposition of malarial pigment
Injury, that does not break the surface of the skin but, ruptures small blood vessels near the surface, causes blood to flow into the tissues, which results in discoloration
Bile Salt
Bile Sounds Active. Body Surface Area
Bile Salt Concentration
Has the ability to emulsify fats. 30 times stronger than Choline when it is breaking down cholesterol deposits
Bile Salt Metabolism
Bowel Sounds Normal
Bowel Sounds Normal and Active
Bile Salt Output
Bowel Sounds Regular
Bile Salt–Stipulated Lipase
Bowel Tones
Biliary Tract Pain
Cells constantly sample their outside environment, taking in substances from outside of the cell, as well as releasing substances to the external environment by doing this, cells can communicate with one another to form complex organisms. This is typically accomplished through budding: the cell membrane bends inward or outward and closes in upon itself, forming a “bubble” of membrane for the transport of substances. Many viruses use this mechanism as a method of entry and exit from a host cell. They are carried into the cell when it buds inward, and released when it buds outward. Many viruses retain the “bubble” of cell membrane (lipid), creating a protective lipid envelope for themselves . Thus these viruses development is completed as they are released from the cell and at the same time given their lipid envelope
Agathosma Betulina–Used as an antiseptic and diuretic. Inflammation of the urethra, blood in the urine, bladder infections, chronic urinary tract disorders, kidney stones, cystitis, and rheumatism. Completely ineffective in treating sexually transmitted diseases
Also known as Purging Buckthorn. Laxitive. Buckthorn stimulates the colonic muscle. Can cause severe abdominal pain and diarrhea. Use Buckthorn only as a last resort!
Budd-Chiari Syndrome
Rare disease characterized by occlusion of hepatic veins, usually accompanied by ascites, hepatomegaly, and pain in abdomen.Caval venogram provided delineation of caval webs and occluded hepatic veins. Percutaneous liver biosy may aid in revealing central lobular congestion. As the diseases progresses, bleeding varices and hepatic coma may develop
Mature viruses that leave a cell slowly, a few at a time, that do not killing the host cell in the process
Used as a astringent, diuretic, nervine, peripheral vasoconstrictor, and anti-tussive property. Improves circulation. Used for over-active thyroid glands, when symptoms include shortness of breath, palpations and shaking
Blood Urea Nitrogen. Creatinine Ratio BUN:creatinine ratio is usually Greater Than20:1 in prerenal and postrenal azotemi
Both Upper Quadrants
Burdock Root
Arctium Minus. Arctium Lappa. Burdock is a large, coarse herb that grows only at a certain time of year and has hooked bracts or burs which adhere to clothing or animal fur. This root has been used to treat various skin conditions such as acne and psoriasis. Burdock seeds are crushed to make a popular tincture used to purify the blood, to treat gout and ulcers, arthritis, rheumatism. Effective as a diaphoretic, used to induce sweating to help in neutralizing and eliminating toxins from the body. Widely utilized by herbal practitioner’s in the treatment of gallstones, liver problems, flu, and to support the kidneys in filtering acids from the blood stream
Butcher’s Broom
Ruscus Aculeatus. Distinguishable yellow flowers and is found in the Pacific Northwest. Also known as Box Holly or Knee Holly, butcher’s broom is a short evergreen shrub from the family Liliaceae. The herb has been made in capsule or tablet form to treat circulatory problems of the legs and as an ointment or suppository to relieve the symptoms of hemorrhoids. Drank as a mildly bitter tea it is used to increase circulation to the limbs and acts to reduce the incidence of post-surgical blood clotting and thrombosis,to reduce swelling of the legs, believed to be useful in the treatment of phlebitis and varicose veins.  When applied as a topical ointment, helps to ease the swelling and pains of rheumatism and arthritis. As well as menstrual problems and symptoms associated with the use of estrogen and pregnancy related cramps. May cause blood pressure to rise
Butternut Bark
Also known as White Walnut. Used for treatment of liver disorders and intestinal sickness. Safe and effective laxative. Used to expel worms during the course of laxative induced cleansing of the body
Body Weight
Shunt, operation in which a surgeon creates a new pathway for the movement of substances in the body

© Vikki Shaw