The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – D

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
D5
Abbreviation for dextrose (glucose) given in a 5 percent normal saline solution
d–Deci
1/10g. Decigram (dg) is a measure of weight; deciliter (dl) is a measure of volume
DALM
Dysplasia Associated Lesion or Mass
Damiana
History of use as an aphrodisiac, supposedly able to stimulate the libido of men and women. Said to possess mild sedative qualities, able to induce a state of relaxation and to aid in falling asleep. Often used to treat asthma, bladder infection, diabetes, impotence, and sterility
Dandelion
Taraxacum officinale. Also known as Blowball, Cankerwort, Lion’s tooth, Priest’s crown, Puffball, Swine snout, White endive, and Wild endive.  Dandelion plant comes from the Asteraceae family and has a base of toothy leaves that rises from a thin, hollow stem and is capped by a deep yellow head of ligulate flowers. Has two particularly important uses: Promotes the formation of bile and removes excess water from the body in edemous conditions resulting from liver problems. Infusion of the fresh root is said to be good for gallstones, jaundice, and other liver problems. Also used to treat chronic rheumatism, gout, and stiff joints
Darvocet
Drug (propoxyphene hydrochloride) prescribed for pain
DAT
Diet As Tolerated
Data
(pl. of datum) Factual information, such as measurements, observations, or statistics, which is used as a basis for reasoning, discussion, or calculation
Data Collection Visit
Any visit by a patient to a study clinic that is used for data collection in the trial
Data Dredging
A term used to characterize analysis that are done on an ad hoc basis, without benefit of prestated hypotheses
Data Editing
The process of reviewing data for the purpose of detecting deficiencies or errors in the way they are collected or recorded. The process of detecting deficient or erroneous values on completed data forms
Data Interval
Data classified into equal intervals without an absolute zero point, e.g., IQ of 120 is 60 points higher than an IQ of 60, but this does not necessarily indicate twice as much intelligence
Data Nominal
Data classified into unordered categories, e.g., male/female, diabetes/no diabetes, mammogram-yes/mammogram-no
Data, Ordinal
Data classified into ordered categories, e.g., intensity of pain (+/++/+++/++++), severity of disease (mild/moderate/severe/fatal)
Data & Safety Monitoring Board-DSMB
A standing committee responsible for periodically reviewing accumulated data for evidence of adverse or beneficial treatment effects during the trial and for initiating recommendations for modification of a study treatment, including termination of the treatment when appropriate. One of the key committees in the organizational structure of a multicenter trial. Usually composed primarily, if not exclusively, of individuals not directly involved in patient care or data collection in the trial
Database
A collection of data files that are organized in a specified manner, and used in analysis of trials
Datum
Singular of data
DB
Direct Bilirubin. Dead Body
DBP
Vitamin D-binding protein
DBW
Desirable Body Weight
DC
Duodenal Cap, Descending Colon, Dilation Catheter, Discontinuation of treatment
D&C
Dilation and Curettage
DD
Digestive Disorder
DE
Duodenal Exclusion
Death
When all vital phenomena ceases to existbwithout capability of resuscitation, Expired
Death Receptor
Death receptors detect the presence of extracellular death signals and, in response, they rapidly ignite the cell’s intrinsic apoptosis machinery
Debridement
Cleaning an open wound by removing foreign material and dead tissue
-Deca
Preferences meaning ten times, as in decagram, or ten grams
-Deci
Prefix meaning one tenth, as in decigram, or a tenth of a gram
Deciliter
One-tenth of a liter; abbreviation: dl
Decompensated Liver Disease
Liver disease in which the liver is damaged and not functioning normally
Decompensation
Failure of compensation, as of the circulation or heart
Decompression, Surgical
Surgery performed to relieve the pressure compromising function of an organ
Deep Vein Thrombosis
A blood clot in a deep vein
Defibrillation
The cessation of fibrillation of the cardiac muscle and restoration of a normal rhythm
Deficiency
State or condition of lacking a substance, quality or characteristic that is essential for completion. Deletion
Deficit
Shortfall or Lack
Definitive Host
The host in which a parasite reproduces sexually
Defluxion
Discharge or flowing of fluid matter, as from the nose in catarrh; sometimes used synonymously with inflammation
Deform
Shapeless, Disfigure
Defunct
Deceased, Dead, Depart, Finish
Degenerate
Deteriorate, Worsens, To fall off from the normal quality
Degerneration
Deterioration; change from a higher to lower form, especially as in change to less functional or healthy tissue. Deterioration or worsening of a structure or condition
Degenerative
Worsening
Degradation
Break-down
Degraded Liver
A human liver divided into many lobes
Dehydration
Loss of fluids from the body, often caused by diarrhea. May result in loss of important salts and minerals
Dehydroascorbate
Oxidized form of ascorbic acid (vitamin C)
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity-DTH
A cell-mediated immune response that produces a cellular infiltrate and edema (swelling), redness and induration (hardness) between 48 and 72 hours after exposure to an antigen
Delirium
Mental disturbance marked by illusions, hallucinations, physical restlessness and inability to make sense. Usually results from a toxic state and lasts a short time
Delta Agent
Previously Hepatitis D Virus — single-stranded circular RNA virus of animals; dependent on hepatitis B virus replication for its expression; involved in chronic liver disease
Delta Infection
Infection with hepatitis delta virus, occurring either simultaneously with or as a superinfection in hepatitis B, whose severity it may increase
Delusional
Having an irrational belief that cannot be changed by a rational argument, often found in schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis
Demarcate
To separate, or to indicate the interface between two areas
Dementia
Losing your mind. Chronic intellectual impairment (loss of mental capacity) with organic origins, that affects a person’s ability to function in a social or occupational setting
Demerol
A narcotic painkiller. Trade name for meperidine, a synthetic analgesic often used as a substitute for morphine
Demulcent
Soothing, bland, allaying the irritation of inflamed or abraded surfaces
Demyelinating Disease
Diseases in which the myelin sheath of nerves is destroyed and that often have an autoimmune component
Denaturation
Reversible or irreversible loss of function in proteins and nucleic acids resulting from loss of higher order secondary, tertiary or quaternary structure) produced by nonphysiological conditions of pH, temperature, salt or organic solvents
Dendritic
Branching
Dendritic Cell
A type of antigen-presenting immune cell. Dendritic cells have elongated, tentacle like branches in which they trap foreign objects
Depletion
Removal
Depressant
Drug that reduces exaggerated functional activity of the tissues
Deprivation
Loss of, lack of
Dermal
Relating to the skin
DES
Diffuse Esophageal Spasm
Desensitization
The reduction or abolition of allergic sensitivity or reactions to the specific antigen (allergen)
Desert Tea
Also known as Brigham Young weed, Desert herb, Mormon tea, Squaw tea, and Teamster’s tea. Used as a diuretic, febrifuge, and tonic. Also used as a remedy for kidney and bladder problems
Detoxification
Neutralization of or degradation of toxic or other dangerous substances. Removal of poisonous substances
Detoxify
To change a harmful substance into a safer form
Devil’s Claw
Harpagophytum Procumbens. Belongs to the family Pedaliaceae. Has been used for treating a wide variety of conditions. Possesses analgesic, sedative and diuretic properties. Devil’s claw has been recommended for treating a wide variety of conditions including diseases of the liver, kidneys, and bladder, as well as allergies, arteriosclerosis, arthritis, climacteric (change of life) problems, gastrointestinal disturbances, headache, heartburn, lumbago, menstrual difficulties, neuralgia, nicotine poisoning, and rheumatism. Reported to help with joint pain while improving vitality in the joints. It is free from side effects and seemingly lacks any appreciable toxicity
Dextrose
Another term for glucose, the simple sugar which results from the complete digestion of many carbohydrates
DG
Diacylglycerol
DH
Diaphragmatic Hernia
DHEA
Dehydroepiandrosterone–Decreases the stickiness of platelets, small particles in the blood that often clump together and cause heart attacks and strokes. Shown to be helpful in Cancer, Alzheimer’s disease, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Multiple Sclerosis, Memory loss, and Parkinson’s disease. Increases the level of estrogen in women and testosterone in men to levels found in younger men and women
DHHS
Dept. of Health and Human Services
DI
Distal Intestine
Dia
(prefix)- through; between
Diabetes
Disease characterized by increased urination. Usually refers to diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus
Condition characterized by abnormally high blood sugar due to insufficient insulin activity
Diabetic Keto Acidosis
An illness in which increased acidity of the blood is caused by the breakdown products (ketones) of fat metabolism, because of a shortage of Insulin
Diabetic Neuropathy
A combined type of nerve damage involving sensory and motor components, typically symmetrical and involving autonomic nerves (serving the blood vessels and internal organs), seen frequently in older diabetic patients
Diagnosis
Determination of the nature of a disease or condition or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the like, and may be assisted by computerized programs designed to enhance the decision-making process
Diagnostic Errors
Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures
Diagnostic Imaging
Use of x-ray or ultrasound pictures of the body organs to make diagnoses
Diagnostic Tests, Routine
Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates
Diagnostic Techniques, Digestive System
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the digestive system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes
Dialysis
Procedure to filter blood for patients with kidney failure, also used to remove absorbed toxins from overdosing and poisoning
Diaphoresis
Sweating
Diaphragm
Muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest
Diarrhea
Abnormal increase in the frequency of intestinal evacuations characterized by their fluid consistency
Diastolic
Part of blood pressure. The bottom of two blood pressure numbers, which measures blood pressure when the heart is at rest
Diathesis
Susceptibility to disease
DIC
Abbreviation for disseminated intravascular coagulation (no blood clotting). In many hospitals, ER personnel also interpret DIC to mean “death is coming” since disseminated intravascular coagulation usually means death is imminent
Dictionary
A device for starting futile arguments over definitions
Differential Diagnosis
Diagnosis made by ruling out many disorders. The patient usually presents with symptoms that can be shared by many conditions. For example, chest pain can be caused by many diseases or conditions, and each one must be ruled out to arrive at the correct diagnosis
Diffusion
To spread out evenly, as in a liquid
Dietary Cholesterol
Cholesterol that is in the food you eat. It is present only in foods of animal origin, not in foods of plant origin. Dietary cholesterol, like dietary saturated fat, tends to raise blood cholesterol, which increases the risk for heart disease
Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food
Dietary Fiber
Indigestible, nonstarch material, such as  pectins, hemicellulose, plant gums, celluloses, found in the cell walls of plants. Found in a wide variety of plant foods, including cereals and whole grain breads, vegetables and fresh fruits, and nuts. Because dietary fiber resists digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, it accounts for a significant portion of the solid matter in bowel movements
Differential
Related to White Blood Cell Count, the proportions of the different varieties
Differential Equation
The mathematical formulation corresponding to a continuous model; an equation involving derivatives
Differentiated, Well
Referring to malignancy, possessing histological characteristics of the originating tissues – usually suggesting less pathological aggression
Diffuse
Scattered, widespread, not limited to one tissue or spot, disperse
Diffusion
Spreading
Digestion
Process of breaking down food into simpler chemical compounds that are capable of being absorbed by the intestine
Digestive Aids
Enzymatic aid in the digestion of proteins, carbohydrates and fats. Helps promote intestinal health. Most commonly used digestive aids are hydrochloric acid, pancreatin and enzyme preparations. Without proper digestion, the molecules that have not been ingested completely can be inappropriately absorbed into the systemic circulation, causing various diseases and the development of food allergies
Digestive Physiology
Functions and activities of the digestive system as a whole or of any of its parts
Digestive Tract
Organs that process food and then store and dispose of the waste products of food. The digestive tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, liver, small and large intestines, and rectum
Dilation
Condition of being stretched out, or distended beyond normal size. Dilation is an increase in the diameter of a segment of a hollow organ such as the intestine
Dill Seed
Used as a digestive aid, eases colic, halt diarrhea, prevent flatulence. Preservative
Diplopia
Double vision
Direct Life Cycle
A life cycle in which a parasite is transmitted directly from one host to the next without an intermediate host or vector of another species
Direct Patient Contact
Patient contacts that are initiated by the study clinic for the purpose of patient recruitment or data collection and that are directed at specified patients without any reliance on interviewing persons, agencies, institutions, or generalized advertising campaigns to make contacts
Disaster Protocol Color Coding
The following color tags are used to immediately triage patients during a mass casualty event: Green is walking wounded; yellow is urgent; red is critical; black is DOA (Dead On Arrival)
Discrete Variable
A variable is capable of assuming only certain values over a defined range
Disease
The debilitating effects on a host of infection by a parasite
Disinfection
Destroy or render harmless pathogenic (disease-causing) microbes in or on an inert substance
Dissection
Identification, isolation and surgical removal
Disseminate
Scatter
Disseminated
Spread throughout the body
Dissociation
Separation
Distal
Further from central. Farthest away from the midline, trunk heart, or other reference points
Distal Pulse
The pulse farthest from the heart
Distension
Enlarging. Visible increase in the waistline. Bloating or swelling of the abdomen
Distomatosis
Infestation with or disease caused by digenetic trematode worms, such as liver rot
Distribution
The pattern by which parasite numbers are partitioned amongst available hosts
Diuresis
More urine than normal
Diuretic
Drug used to increase urine output, thereby cleansing the excretory system
Divalent
Having a chemical valence of two
Diverticula
Plural of diverticulum
Diverticulitis
Condition in which diverticula become inflamed. Inflammation of the colon
Diverticulosis
Condition in which small sacs (diverticula) form in the wall of the colon. This condition is common among older people
Diverticulum
Small sac that forms on the wall of a hollow organ (usually the colon). The plural form is diverticula. The liver is an anterior diverticulum of the intestine
dl
Deciliter, one tenth of a liter
DLC
Dual Lumen Catheter
DLPA
(D.L-Phenylalanine) 50-50 mixture of d-phenylalanine and l-phenylalanine. May help alleviate chronic pain by increasing endorphin activity (the body s natural painkillers). Phenylalinine is the precursor of tyrosine, and hence of dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, all of which require Vitamins B6 and C for their biochemical conversion processes. Phenylalinine is also an essential acid required by the thyroid for normal function. Used in several ways: as a pain control, antidepressant, to improve memory, concentration and mental alertness, treat symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, to reduce symptoms of multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease, and to treat the depigmentation of the skin condition known as Vitiligo
Dormancy
Latent
Dormant
At rest; clinically silent.
DM
Duodenal Mucosa
DMSO
Dimethyl Suloxide–Used to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, diminish swelling, encourage healing, and restore normal function. Typically used for a variety of disorders, including arthritis, cancer, mental retardation, stroke, and various sports injuries
DNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid, The genetic material which determines a cell’s activities. It carries the cell’s genetic code. DNA is used to store the genetic information of all living creatures, with the exception of the RNA viruses. The carrier of genetic information in the nucleus of cells. It determines the structure, function and behavior of the cell. The blueprint
DNA Amplification
The use of enzymes in making millions or billions of copies of a single DNA sequence (see PCR)
DNA Annealing
The reformation of double stranded DNA from thermally denatured DNA. The rate of reassociation depends upon the degree of repetition and is slowest for unique sequences (this is the basis of the Cot value)
DNA Binding Protein
Proteins that interact with DNA, typically to pack or modify the DNA for example histones or to regulate gene expression, transcription factors. Among those proteins that recognize specific DNA sequences, there are a number of characteristic conserved motifs believed to be essential for specificity
DNA Diagnosis
The use of DNA polymorphisms to detect the presence of a disease gene
DNA Excision
The removal of a damaged segment of a DNA molecule by a group of DNA repair enzymes in order to repair the molecule
DNA Fingerprint
The unique pattern of DNA fragments identified by Southern hybridisation (using a probe that binds to a polymorphic region of DNA) or by polymerase chain reaction (using primers flanking the polymorphic region)
DNA Gene
Any of a number of genes found in the bacteria Escherichia coli which makes proteins that are essential for DNA replication
DNA Library
Genomic Library. A collection of DNA molecules, derived from restriction fragments that have been cloned in vectors, that includes all or part of the genetic material of an organism
DNA Ligase
Enzyme involved in DNA replication
DNA Ligation
The joining of two DNA strands by their ends with a phosphodiester bond
DNA Melting
Denaturation of a DNA molecule with heat. The double-stranded molecule breaks up into two single-stranded molecules as a result of heat
DNA Methylation
Process by which methyl groups are added to certain nucleotides in genomic DNA
DNA Modification
Variety of chemical changes made to a DNA molecule just after it has been replicated. An example is DNA methylation
DNA Polymerase
Any of several polymerases that promote replication or repair of DNA usually using single-stranded DNA as a template. Enzymes involved in template directed synthesis of DNA from deoxyribonucleotide triphosphates. I, II and III are known in E. coli, III appears to be most important in genome replication and I is important for its ability to edit out unpaired bases at the end of growing strands. Animal cells have and polymerases, with apparently responsible for replication of nuclear DNA and for replication of mitochondrial. All these function with a DNA strand as template. Retroviruses possess a unique DNA polymerase (reverse transcriptase) that uses an RNA template
DNA Polymerase i
An enzyme that aids in DNA replication. It has the following 3 functions: 1. polymerizes in the 5(r) to 3(r) direction on single-stranded template. 2. degrades single or double-stranded DNA from a free 3(r)-OH end, and 3. degrades double-stranded DNA from a free 5(r) end
DNA Polymerase ii
An enzyme that aids in DNA replication. It has a number of different functions, including the repair of ultraviolet radiation damaged DNA
DNA Polymerase iii
An enzyme that aids in DNA replication. It has a number of different functions, such as: proofreading newly replicated DNA, removing nucleotides from the 3′ end of the strand one by one, and binding nucleotides from the 5′ end of the strand
DNA Polymerisation
The making of a DNA molecule from nucleotide monomers by linking them together in a long chain (a polymer)
DNA Probe
A small piece of nucleic acid that has been labeled with a radioactive isotope, dye, or enzyme and is used to locate a complementary nucleotide sequence or gene on a DNA molecule
DNA-Protein Interaction
Any complex that forms between a protein molecule and DNA. Examples are nucleosomes (structures formed for the purpose of DNA storage) and any gene regulatory protein (a protein which regulates transcription by binding to a regulatory region on the DNA)
DNA Repair
Enzymic correction of errors in DNA structure and sequence that protects genetic information against environmental damage and replication errors
DNA Replication
The process whereby a copy of a DNA molecule is made and thus the genetic information it contains is duplicated. The parental double stranded DNA molecule is replicated semi conservatively, i.e. each copy contains one of the original strands paired with a newly synthesised strand that is complementary in terms of AT and GC base pairing. Though in this sense conceptually simple, mechanistically a complex process involving a number of enzymes
DNR
Abbreviation for do not resuscitate, which is requested or ordered for terminally ill patients
DOA
Dead On Arrival
Docks
Also known as Great Water Dock, Patience Dock, Red Dock, Round-leaved, Sharp-pointed Dock, and Yellow Dock. Patience Dock is considered good for jaundice, also has a gentle laxative action. Round-leaved Dock was formerly given for the cure of boils. Sharp-pointed Dock , the root has been used in drinks and decoctions for scurvy and as a general blood cleanser, and used for outward application to cutaneous eruptions, in the form of an ointment, made by beating it up with lard. Yellow Dock is applicable to all the purposes for which the other species are used. The root has laxative, alterative and mildly tonic action, and can be freely used as a tonic and laxative in bilious complaints, rheumatism, and as an astringent in piles, bleedings of the lungs, etc. Mostly prescribed for diseases of the blood, from a spring eruption, to scurvy, scrofula and chronic skin diseases. Also useful in jaundice and as a tonic to the stomach and the system in general. Red Dock, or Water Dock, has properties very similar to those of the Yellow Dock. Its powers as a tonic are, perhaps more marked than the previous species. For internal use, it is given in an infusion, in wine glassfull doses. Externally it is used as an application for eruptive and scorbutic diseases, ulcers and sores, used for cleansing ulcers in affections of the mouth, etc. As a powder, it has cleansing and detergent effect upon the teeth. Great Water Dock is strongly astringent, and powdered makes a good dentifrice. The astringent qualities of the root render it good in case of diarrhea, the seeds (as with the other Docks) having been used for the same purpose. The green leaves are said to be an excellent application for ulcers of the eyes
Dogsbane
Apocynum Androsaemifolium–Also known as Bitter Root, Milkweed, or Fly-Trap. One of the digitalis group of cardiac tonics, Apocynum, is the most powerful in slowing the pulse, and its action on the vaso-motor system is also very strong. Being rather irritant to mucous membranes, it may cause nausea and catharsis. It is a powerful hydragogue, helpful in dropsy’s due to heart failure, and in the ascites of hepatic cirrhosis. Also used as an alterative in rheumatism, syphilis and scrofula. The absorption in the gastrointestinal tract being very irregular, the dosage and patient must be carefully watched and guarded
DOH
Department Of Health
Dong Quai
Angelica Sinensis–One of the most important female tonic remedies in Chinese medicine, Dong Quai is used to provide energy and regulate female hormones. Main active ingredient is ligustilide which has been shown to normalize uterine contractions, improve peripheral circulation, relax blood vessels and act as a general blood tonic. Used in the treatment of female disorders such as menstrual cramps, premenstrual syndrome, and to relieve symptoms associated with menopause. Also said to purify the blood and act as a mild laxative. Dong quai also contains compounds that act to stimulate the central nervous system, supporting its use as a mild energizer. Certain people may experience a form of dermatitis caused by compounds that promote photosensitivity. (Interferon) Pregnant women, and women with excessive menstrual flow, should avoid using this herb altogether
Dopamine
A chemical transmitter, naturally occurring in nerves, and used in a synthetic form to sustain blood pressure
Dorsal
The back of a body part, with reference to the standard anatomical convention
Dose/Dosage
Dose is the amount or quanity to be given at one time, or the total amount to be given. Dosage implies a regimen, the regulated administration of individual doses. Usually expressed as a quanity per unit of time
Dose Ranging
The establishment of the optimal dosage of a new drug by repeated trials of varying dosages
Double Blind
A procedure in a clinical trial for issuing and administering treatment assignments by code number in order to keep study patients and all members of the clinic staff, especially those responsible for patient treatment and data collection, from knowing the assigned treatments. Any condition in which two different groups of people are purposely denied access to a piece of information in order to keep that information from influencing some measurement, observation, or process
Double-Blind Study/Trial
Persons testing a new therapy for safety and effectiveness can be influenced by their preconceived ideas or desires. Similarly, patients often report improvement from treatments if they expect the treatment to work, a phenomenon known as the placebo effect. To prevent these biases from influencing results, controlled trials often use codes that hide knowledge of which treatment is being given from both the investigator and the patient until after the study is complete
Double Helix
Structure of DNA described and discovered by Crick and Watson
DP
Diminutive Polyp
DR
Diffuse Redness
Dronabinol-Marinol
A synthetic form of the active ingredient in marijuana, used to increase hunger and ameliorate nausea in persons with severe involuntary weight loss
Drop Out
A patient enrolled in a clinical trial who is either unwilling or unable to return to the study clinic for regular follow-up visits
Dropsy
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the body; edema
Drug Allergy
Sensitivity or Hypersensitivity to a drug or chemical, with the potential for causing harmful consequences
Drug Induced Cholestasis
A condition where a drug is interfering with the normal flow of bile from the liver to the gut via the biliary tract. The end result is jaundice
Drug Induced Hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver that is caused by a drug. Some medications may cause inflammation of the liver as a drug side effect or drug toxicity. Drugs that are known to cause hepatitis include acetaminophen, erythromycin, halothane, isoniazid, methyldopa, and oral contraceptives
Drug Side Effect
An often undesirable effect that occurs in association with the use of a particular medication. Examples of common drug side effects include: dizziness, headache, nausea, sedation, vomiting, and weakness. Drug side effects that occur in 1%, or more, of patients taking a particular medication are considered to be causally related to the use of that medication
Drug Toxicity
The systemic effects of a drug that are related to the overall level of the medication in the bloodstream. Drug toxicity may occur with overdosage of a medication, accumulation of the drug in the body over time, or the inability of the patient’s body to eliminate the drug
Drug Trial
A clinical trial in which the test treatments are drugs
DSHEA
Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, A bill passed by Congress in 1994. It recognizes the valuable role nutritional supplements play in promoting health and opens the way for consumers to obtain the information they need to make health dietary choices
DTH
Delayed Type Hypersensitivity
DTP
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis (toxoids/vaccine)
DTR
Registered Dietetic Technician
DU
Duodenal Ulcer
Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
An inherited form of chronic jaundice (a yellow tint to the eyes and skin) there is no known cause
Ductile
Can be reshaped or drawn without breaking
Ductule
Small duct
Ductus
Duct
Ductus Venous
A vein passing through the liver and connecting the left umbilical vein with the inferior vena cava of the fetus, losing its circulatory function after birth, and persisting as the ligamentum venosum of the liver
Ductus Choledochus
Common bile duct
Duffy Blood-Group System
Blood group consisting mainly of the antigens Fy(a) and Fy(b), determined by allelic genes, the frequency of which varies profoundly in different races; amorphic genes are common
Duo
Combining form meaning two
Duodenitis
An irritation of the first part of the small intestine/duodenum
Duodenum
Gut, first part of the small intestine. The first, shortest, and widest part of the small intestine that in humans is about 10 inches (25 centimeters) long and that extends from the pylorus to the undersurface of the liver where it descends for a variable distance and receives the bile and pancreatic ducts and then bends to the left and finally upward to join the jejunum near the second lumbar vertebra
D&V
Diarrhea & Vomiting
D/W
Dextrose in water
Dys
(prefix)-Difficult; bad; abnormal
Dyscrasia
Bad temper
Dysentery
Inflammation of the colon, marked by intense diarrhea with the passage of small amounts of mucus and blood, usually caused by pathogenic bacteria or protozoans
Dysfunction
Malfunction
Dyspepsia
Condition of disturbed digestion characterized by nausea, heartburn, pain, and gas. Another name for indigestion
Dysphagia
Difficulty swallowing, usually caused by blockage or injury to the esophagus
Dysphasia
Impairment of speech
Dysplasia
The abnormal development of tissue. In disease, the alteration of size, shape, and organization of adult cells. May be precursor of cancer
Dyspnea
Difficult or labored breathing. Shortness of breath
Dysregulation
Refers to interruption or interference of normal process(es)
Dystonia
Spasmotic movements due to disordered tonicity of muscle

© Vikki Shaw