The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – E

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
EA
Enternal Alimentation, Enteroasnastomosis
Ear Coning
A centuries-old way to relieve earache, to fight infection, and remove toxins and wax from inside the ear.
[Note From Author: I highly recommend this. It’s very relaxing and it DOES work]
E Antibody
Carriers who stop producing
E-Antibody Positive- (eAb+)
Carriers who stop producing E-antigen sometimes produce E-antibodies. The clinical significance of this is uncertain
E-Antigen
sometimes produce e-antibodies. The clinical signficance of this result is uncertain
E Antigen
A viral protein that is secreted by Hepatitis B Virus infected cells. The presence of the E Antigen indicates high levels of virus in the blood which increases a carrier’s infectiousness to others with whom they come into close contact with. If this test is negative, yet a person is known to be HBsAg positive, then it indicates low levels of virus in the blood, which decreases one’s infectiousness
E Antigen Positive (eAg+)
S-antigen is part of the HBV particle. S-antigen positive suggests the person is either an HBV carrier or is experiencing an acute HBV infection
Early Satiety
Feeling full before completing a normal sized meal. Definition of ‘normal’ varies with each individual
EAS
Enternal Anal Sphincter
EB
Esophageal Body
EBC
Esophageal Balloon Catheter
EBV
Epstein-Barr Virus
EC
Escherichia Coli, Esophageal Carcinoma
Ecchymosis
Bruising
ECF
Extracellular Fluid
ECG
Electrocardiogram
Echinacea
Echinacea Purpurea–Commonly known as the purple coneflower, is used by American Indians as the remedy of choice for infections and animal bites. Research has uncovered active constituents that have a profound effect on proper immune function- particularly its polysaccharides and echinacosides. Used extensively by herbalists and alternative health care providers to boost the immune system, help speed wound healing, reduce inflammations, treat colds and flu, and fight infections. Echinacea helps to activate macrophages, key immune system elements that are directly involved in the destruction of bacteria, viruses, other infectious agents and cancer cells. Reports indicate that Echinacea enhances natural killer cell activity, another important component in the immune system. Echinacea is recommended for use periodically for one or two weeks at a time, do not use continuously, because the body becomes accustomed to it, and it loses effectiveness. This effectiveness is restored in a week or two. If you are pregnant or nursing, consult your physician before using this product. If you have kidney disease, restrict usage to ten days (maximum) to avoid a possible imbalance in excreted minerals
Echinococcosis, Hepatic
Helminth infection of the liver caused by Echinococcus granulosus or Echinococcus multilocularis
Echography
Scan
Eck Fistula
An artificial anastomosis between the portal vein and inferior vena cava by which blood from the intestinal region is diverted from the liver to flow directly to the heart
Ecological Epidemiology
A branch of epidemiology which views disease as a result of the ecological interactions between populations of hosts and parasites
-ectasis
(suffix)-To stretch; dilate
-ectomy
Suffix meaning excision of structure or organ
Ectopic
In the wrong place. In an abnormal position. Occurring at an abnormal time
Edema
Accumulation of an abnormally large amount of fluid in body tissues, causing swelling of the involved area. Edema from liver disease is most often seen in the lower legs, feet, and around the eyes. It can be caused by portal hypertension and is associated with cirrhosis. Also called Dropsy
EEA
Elemental Enteral Alimentation, End to End Anastomosis
EEG
Electroencephalogram
EFA
Essential Fatty Acids
EFC
Endogenous Fecal Calcium
Efficacy
Index of the potency of a drug or disease treatment
Effusion
Escape of fluid, Bodily fluid pathologically accumulated
EG
Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis, Esophagogastrectomy
EGD
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy
EGG
Electrofastrogram, Electrogastrography
EH
Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma
EHBDA
Extrahepatic Bile Duct Atresia
EHC
Enterohepatic Circulation
EHEC
Enterohemorrhagic, Escherichia Coli
EHO
Extrahepatic Obstruction
EIA
Enzyme Immunoassay
EIEC
Enteroinvasive , Escherichia Coli
Elastin
Protein that is similar to collagen and is the chief constituent of elastic fibers
Elderberry
Sambucus Racemosa. The elder is a common shrub bearing nutrient dense black berries and small white flowers. Traditional use of this plant includes both the berry and the flower. Elderberry juice has a long tradition as a refreshing drink that enhances resistance and health. The berries are particularly rich in the important class of antioxidant compounds called polyphenols
Elective
Not urgent
Electrocardiogram
A recording of the electrical activity of the heart
Electrolyte(s)
Mineral salts that are involved in nerve signal transmission and muscle contractions. generally refers to the dissolved form of a mineral such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorine, etc.
Elder
Used for any catarrhal inflammation of the upper respiratory tract such as hayfever and sinusitis. Elder flowers are ideal for the treatment of colds and influenza. The leaves are used for bruises, sprains, and wounds. Elder leaves may be useful compounded in ointments for tumors. Elder berries are useful in treating chronic rheumatism. For colds and fevers, Elder may be used with Peppermint, Yarrow or Hyssop. For influenza, combine with Bonset. For catarrhal states, mix it with Golden Rod
Elecampane
Used for its  anti-tussive, diaphoretic, expectorant, hepatic, and anti-microbial properties. Used for irritating bronchial coughs, especially in children. Also used for treatment of asthma and bronchial asthma, bronchial and gastric catarrh, chronic bronchitis, pertussis, pneumoconiosis, silicosis, tuberculosis, emphysematous conditions, and chronic cough
Electrolyte Analysis
Tests the basic chemicals in the body; sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate
Electrophysiology
Any method of recording electrical events in living organisms
ELISA
Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay–One of the leading biotechnology analysis and testing techniques. Provides detailed information on the amount (level) of antibodies in the bloodstream. Visualisation is typically made possible by enzyme induced color formation. A blood test used to detect antibodies to a foreign substance (for example, a virus)
Elixir
Sweetened aromatic preparation, about 25% alcohol, used as a vehicle for medicinal substances for its flavoring or medicinal qualities
ELT
Endoscopic Laser Therapy
EM
Esophageal Manometry
Embolectomy
The surgical removal of blood clot from arteries or veins
Emboli
Solid particles, usually a fragments of clotted blood or fatty deposits, carried along in the bloodstream
Embolism
The dissemination through blood vessels and lodgment of harmful substances, a blood clot, in remote locations, compromising the health of adjacent tissues
Embolus
Blood clot
Embrocation
Liniment
EMD
Esophageal Mobility Disorder
EMS
Emergency Medical Services
EMT
Emergency Medical Technician
Emesis
Vomiting
Emetic
Drug used to help induce vomiting
EMG
Electromyography, Electromyogram
-emia
(suffix)-Blood
Empiric
Based on experience
Empyema
Collection of pus
Emu Oil
Used for relief from insect bites and stings, burns and sunburns, cuts, scrapes, bruises, chapped lips and other minor skin irritations. Also used effectively to treat blemishes, diaper rash, hair care, hemorrhoids, Poison Ivy, scars, stretch marks, and warts. Shows anti-inflammatory effects on skin tissue. Because it penetrates the skin so quickly and deeply, provides fast, temporary relief from soreness, muscle aches, and leg cramps. Excellent skin hydrating product. Helps promote natural healing, rejuvenate dry skin, and freshen skin tissue. Readily alleviates the pain, in about 2 to 3 minutes, dramatically reduces tissue scarring & blistering.
EN
Enteral Nutrition, Enema
Encephalopathy
Brain disease, medical term used to describe a variety of brain function abnormalities that may affect some patients who have liver disease. Symptoms can include insomnia, confusion, disorientation. Alteration in sleep patterns and mental status, ranging from forgetfulness and mild confusion to coma; may be caused by circulating gut-derived brain-toxic proteins not cleared by a dysfunctional liver.
Endemic
Term to describe levels of infection which do not exhibit wide fluctuations through time in a defined place. For microparasites like measles, the term is used slightly differently to indicate an infection which can persist in a population in the long term without needing to be reintroduced from outside. Occuring continuously in a population
Endo
(prefix)-Within
Endocrine
Internal secretion related
Endocytosis
Process in which cells take in fluids or other large molecules
Endogenous
Without obvious external cause
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Extensive network of fine parallel membranes interspersed throughout the cytoplasm of the cell, used for the transport of substances inside of a cell
Endoscope
Thin, lighted tube through which a doctor can look at tissues inside the body
Endoscope Papillotomy
After endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography has been performed, a catheter (tube) with a wire is placed into the bile duct draining into the duodenum so that gallstones can be removed from the common bile duct
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio Pancreatography
Radiographic imaging of the bile ducts and pancreatic duct after the introduction of radio-opaque dye into the ampulla of Vater through an instrument ( endoscope ) passed down the throat, gullet, and stomach into the duodenum
Endoscopy
Internal examination using a fiber optic tube
Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
Visual examination of the gastrointestinal tract by means of a fiberoptic endoscope. Used to localize, identify, and photograph pathologic alterations, obtain biopsy material and perform other surgical interventions, also used for the delivery of medication
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
ERCP–Diagnostic examination performed by a physician through an endoscope. A catheter is placed through the endoscope into the opening where the bile ducts and pancreas enter the duodenum and dye is injected. An x-ray is taken during the injection to permit the physician to see the system of ducts
Endoscopic, Surgical Procedures
Surgery performed with the use of an endoscope. Operative techniques may include use of lasers or electrocautery. The procedure is guided via visualization using fiber optics, video and other remote transmission. Advantages are briefer anesthesia and operative periods, reduced recovery time, shorter hospitalization, and generally less trauma for the patient
End Stage
Being or occurring in the final stages of a terminal disease or condition
End Stage Liver Disease
Stage when liver disease has progressed to the point where the liver can no longer carry out its functions properly. The only treatment for end-stage liver disease is liver transplantation
Enema
Rectal injection of liquid, used to encourage evacuation of the bowels
ENT
Ear, Nose, and Throat
Enteritis
Small intestine inflammation
Enter(o)
(prefix)-Intestine
Enterohepatic
Intestine and liver related
Enterostomal Therapy–ET–Nurse
Nurse skilled in caring for and teaching ostomy patients
Envelope
A lipid membrane enveloping a virus particle
Enzyme
Chemical substance that while remaining unchanged, helps a chemical reaction to take place. At the end of this reaction, the enzyme can help in other reactions of the same kind. Protein in the body that initiate and accelerate chemical reactions . Digestive enzymes act in the mouth, stomach, and intestines to break down food into simpler compounds usable for producing energy or for building various body substances. In case of enzyme deficiency, digestive enzymes, unlike other kinds, can readily be used by the body when provided by an external source. Alfalfa, Apple, Artichoke (leaves and root), Barley (malt), Carline thistle, Cascara sagrada (bark), Castor bean (oil), Dandelion (root), Papaya, Peppermint, Soybeans, Wood sorrel, Yellow bedstraw, all contain Enzymes
Enzyme Immunoassay
(EIA)–One of the leading biotechnology analysis and testing techniques. Provides detailed information on the amount of antibodies in the bloodstream
Eosinophilia
Increase in white blood cells
EPEC
Enteropathogenic
Ephedra
Also called Ma-huang . Used to treat bronchial asthma, aching joints and bones, cold and flu, chills, edema, headache, lack of perspiration, nasal congestion, and cough and wheezing
Epi
(prefix)-Upon; over
Epidemic
A rapid increase in the levels of an infection. Typical of the microparasitic infections (with long lasting immunity and short generation times) an epidemic is usually heralded by an exponential rise in the number of cases in time and a subsequent decline as susceptible numbers are exhausted. Epidemics may arise from the introduction of a novel pathogen (or strain) to a previously unexposed (naive) population or as a result of the regrowth of susceptible numbers some time after a previous epidemic due to the same infectious agent
Epidemic Fadeout
Parasite extinction occurring because numbers are so low immediately following an epidemic that it is possible for small stochastic fluctuations to remove all parasites
Epidemiological
Study of epidemics
Epidemiology
The study of patterns of disease in a population. Investigation of the causes of and ways to control epidemic diseases. Especially the factors that influence the incidence, distribution, and control of infectious diseases; the study of disease occurrence in human populations
Epidermis
Outermost, nonvascular layer of skin
Epigastralgia
Pain in the upper abdomen
Epigastric
Related to the upper abdominal area
Episome
Class of genetic elements of bacteria that may exist either as autonomous entities, replicating in the host independent of the bacterial chromosome, or as segments of the bacterial chromosome, replicating with it
Epistaxis
Nosebleed
Epitheliod
Resembling Epithelium
Epitheliod Cell
A macrophage with abundant cytoplasm causing it to resemble an epithelial cell: found in granulomas such as those of tuberculosis
Epithelioma
A form of cancer. A tumor derived from epithelium; usually a skin cancer, occasionally cancer of a mucous membrane
Epithelium
Covering of internal and external body surfaces
Epithelization
The growth of epithelium over a raw surface
Epithelize
To cover or to become covered with Epithelium
Epitope
An epitope is the chemical group which is recognized by the immune system. It is a small fragment (peptide) from an antigen (protein). The cellular immune response (CTL and HTL) is activated when CTL and HTL recognize epitopes from disease-causing antigens
Epstein-Barr Virus
A herpes virus which causes glandular fever
ER
Epigastric Region, Esophageal Rupture, Emergency Room
ERBD
Endoscopic Retrograde Biliary Drainage
ERC
Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatogram, Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Eroded
Having a shallow or superficial ulceration
Eructation
Belching
Eruption
Breaking out
Erythr, Erythro
Combining form meaning Red, Erythrocyte
Erythema
Redness of the skin occurring in patches of variable shape & size. Can be caused by many different things, Heat, Ultraviolet Rays, certain drugs, or ionizing radiation
Erythema Nodosum
Skin eruption, usually on the anterior surface of the legs, below the knees, of blue to pink, tender nodules that appear in crops, often associated with joint pain, seen more in women
Erythema Threshold
The amount of radiation that causes redness of the skin
Erythematous
Relating to, or causing, erythema
Erythrocyte Aggregation
Aggregation of erythrocytes probably resulting from changes in the negative surface charge [zeta potential] of the cells caused by the dielectric effect of proteins in the surrounding plasma, especially asymmetric macromolecules like fibrinogen and gamma-globulin
Erythrocyte Aging
Senescence of the red blood cell. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. Average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days
Erythrocyte Deformability
Ability of erythrocytes to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature
Erythrocyte Indices
Quantification of size and cell hemoglobin content or concentration of the erythrocyte, usually derived from erythrocyte count, blood hemoglobin concentration, and hematocrit Includes the mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). Use also for cell diameter and thickness
Erythropoiesis
Red cell production
ES
Endoscopic Sphinceterotomy, Esophagus, External Sphincter
ESO
Esophagus, Esophagoscopy
Esophageal
Related to the esophagus
Esophageal Varices
Varicose veins of the esophagus, which have lost the support of the surrounding tissue and are bulging into the channel of the esophagus, and are irritated by the passage of food. They are almost always due to changes in the liver circulation caused by cirrhosis
Esophagectomy
Operation to remove a portion of the esophagus
Esophagitis
Inflammation of the esophagus
Esophagoscopy
Examination of the esophagus using a thin, lighted instrument. Used to localize, identify, and photograph pathologic alterations, to obtain biopsy material and perform other surgical interventions, and for delivery of medication
Esophagram
Series of x-rays of the esophagus. X-ray pictures are taken after the patient drinks a solution that coats and outlines the walls of the esophagus
Esophagus
The muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach
ESR
Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Essential
Can not be manufactured by the body
Ester
Any of a class of often fragrant compounds that can be represented by the formula RCOOR` and that are usually formed by the reaction between an acid and an alcohol usually with elimination of water
ESV
Esophageal Valve
ET
Endotracheal Tube, Enterostomal Therapy
ETA
Estimated Time of Arrival
ETEC
Enterotoxic, Enterotoxigenic
Ethanol
Grain alcohol; made from sugar, starch, and other carbohydrates by fermentation; has sedative properties
Etiology
The study of the causes of disease
ETOP
Etoposide
Eucalyptus
Used as a topical antiseptic, a gargle for sore throats and an inhalant to relieve asthma, bronchitis, croup and nasal congestion. Relieves congestion, prevents infection, eases muscle soreness. Never ingest eucalyptus oil. Taken internally, it’s very poisonous. Fatalities have been reported from taking as little as a teaspoonful. Teas are made only from the leaves. Do not give eucalyptus to children under the age of two
Euphrasia
Proven effective in reducing skin blemishes, clearing bloodshot eyes, and helping with impotence
European Vervain
Also known as Enchanter’s plant, Herb of the cross, Holy herb, Juno’s tears, Pigeon’s grass, Pigeonweed, and Simpler’s joy. Used as an astringent, diuretic, emmenagogue, galactagogue, stimulant, tonic, and vulnerary. A decoction is said to be good for eczema and other skin conditions. Also been used for  dropsy, jaundice, whooping cough, and kidney and liver problems. An infusion or decoction is used to help heal wounds
EUS
Endoscopic Ultrasonography
Evacuation
Emptying
Evening Primrose
Reduces high blood pressure, Aids in weight loss, helps to treat all skin disorders, multiple sclerosis, arthritis, alcoholism, female disorders such as cramps & heavy bleeding, hot flashes, and many other disorders
EVL
Esophageal Band Ligation
EVR
Early Virological Response
EVS
Esophageal Variceal Sclerotherapy
Ex (o)
Out of; away from; outside of
Exacerbation
Worsening
Exanthema
Skin rash
Excipient
Inactive part of drug
Excoriation
Breakdown of skin
Excrete
To discharge wastes from the blood or body tissues
Excretion
Removal of waste, Expelling or getting out of the body
Exfoliation
Shedding of cells
Excretory
Concerned with the process of elimination of waste products through urine and sweat
Exogenous
With an external origin
Expectorant
Substance used to expel mucus from the respiratory tract
Exponential Decay
A decline in which the rate of decay is always proportional to the amount of material remaining; the constant of proportionality is the rate constant
Exponential Growth
An increase in which the rate of growth is always proportional to the amount of material remaining; the constant of proportionality is the rate constant
Extension
Moving apart
External
Situated or occurring on the outside, many anatomical structures formerly called external are now more correctly termed lateral
External Oblique
Lower 8 ribs
Extracellular
Outside cells
Extracorporeal
Outside the body
Extract
Solution representing four to six times the strength of the crude drug. In herbalism, the desired constituents withdrawn from a plant by physical or chemical means or both
Extraction
Removal
Extrahepatic
Situated or originating outside the liver
Extravasation
Escape of blood or fluid into tissue
Extravascular
Outside a vessel
Exudate
Liquid that oozes from an inflamed area
Eyebright
Euphrasia Officinalis–Comes from the family Scrophulariaceae and may be taken as a tea, in a lotion or infusion form or capsules. May be used for conjunctivitis and other eye irritations, but has not been said to have any therapeutic properties for the treatment of eye disease. Useful for eyestrain, eye inflammations, and other eye ailments. Can relieve other symptoms that accompany runny, sore, itchy eyes due to colds or allergies. Considered to be an anti-catarrhal, astringent, and anti-inflammatory. Excellent remedy for problems of the mucous membranes. Internally, it also helps maintain good vision and eye health by supporting the liver among other organs in such a way as to cleanse the blood supply to the eyes. Helpful in acute or chronic inflammations, stinging and weeping eyes as well as over-sensitivity to light

© Vikki Shaw