The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – P

A B C D E F G H I J K L M
N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
P
Phosphorus; Pressure
PABA
Para Aminobenzoic Acid. May be considered part of the Vitamin B complex. As a coenzyme, PABA functions in the breakdown and utilization of proteins and in the formation of red blood cells, aids healthy bacteria in producing folic acid; contains sun screening properties; aids in the assimilation of Pantothenic acid; and returns hair to its natural color. A deficiency of Para Amino Benzoic Acid may cause constipation, depression, digestive disorders, eczema, extreme fatigue, headaches, irritability, nervousness, and/or premature graying of the hair
PaCO2
Arterial carbon dioxide pressure
PAO2
Alveolar oxygen pressure
PaO2
Arterial oxygen pressure
PCO2
Carbon dioxide pressure (or tension)
PAF
Platelet Activating Factor
Pain Behavior
Observable actions other than descriptive speech arising out of the experience of pain
Palp
Refers to blood pressure taken under emergency conditions when listening for the systolic and diastolic pressures with a stethoscope is impossible. Taken by feeling (palpation) the pulse
Palpation
Act of feeling with the hand. Physical examination in medical diagnosis by pressure of the hand or fingers to the surface of the body , to determine the condition (as of size or consistency) of an underlying part or organ
Palpitation
Subjective sensation of unduly rapid or irregular heartbeat
Palliative
Giving relief but not cure
Palmar Erythema
Red Palms. Red palms are seen in people with advanced liver disease, due to expansion of small blood vessels (capillaries)
Palsy
Paralysis
Pancreas
A large, elongated, racemose gland situated transversely behind the stomach, between the spleen and the duodenum
Pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas
Pancytopenia
Low Red Blood Cell & low White Blood Count and low platelet count
Pandemic
An epidemic widely distributed in space
Pangamic Acid
Vitamin B-15. Exhibits antioxidant properties. Lowers blood cholesterol levels, Stimulates immune system response, Protect the liver from alcohol damage, cures fatigue, wards off hangovers, and assists in the regulation of hormones
Pantothenic Acid
B-complex vitamin necessary for the normal functioning of the adrenal gland, which directly affects growth. Essential for the formation of fatty acids. As a coenzyme, it participates in the utilization of riboflavin and in the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Improves the body’s resistance to stress; helps the adrenal glands, and fights infections by building antibodies. A deficiency of Pantothenic Acid may result in burning feet, digestive disorders, dizzy spells, muscle cramps, restlessness, retarded growth, skin abnormalities, stomach stress, and vomiting
PAO
Peak Acid Output
PAP
Pancreatitis Associated Protein
Papaya
Carica Papaya. Aids in the breakdown and metabolism of protein, exhibits anti-ulcer action, and helps relieve indigestion
Papilloma
Benign epithelial neoplasm
Papule
Mole
Para
Prefix meaning beside or near
Para-Aortic-Lymph nodes
Alongside the aorta, or major blood vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood to the body
Paracentesis
Fluid removal
Parasite
Organism that lives in or on another organism, usually causing damage to the host organism. Any disease causing organism. An organism exhibiting an obligatory dependence on another organism, its host, which is detrimental to the host
Parasitic
Parasite related
Parasiticide
Agent that kills parasites
Parathyroid
Thyroid related
Paravenous
Beside a vein
Parenchyma
Functional tissue of an organ. Internal anatomy of an organ
Parenchymal
Hepatocytes are parenchymal cells of the liver
Parenteral
Not by mouth, any substance that is introduced into the body anyway except by mouth. Not in or through the digestive system, introduced otherwise than by way of the intestines and occurring outside the intestine
Parenteral Transmission
Transmission of infection via the parenteral route; for example via contamination with infected blood or blood products
Paresis
Partial paralysis
Paresthesia
A perverted sensation of crawling, tingling or burning of the skin. Common in neuropathies
Parietal
Outer wall related
Parotitis
Swollen glands
Paroxysmal
In sudden attacks
Parsley
Petroselinum Sativum. Used as a carminative to relieve gas and stimulate digestive action, the root has been used for its mild diuretic activity, helping to increase urine output and rid the body of excess fluids. An excellent breath freshener
Passiflora
Edulis. Has a sedative and tranquilizing effect. Said to have an anti-spasmodic effect especially when associated tension
Passion Flower
Also called Maypop and Wild Passion Flower. Reduces spasms and depresses the central nervous system. Used as a sedative in nervous disorders, difficulties in sleeping, anxiety, restlessness, childbirth and menopause
Passive Immunity
Immunity which has been acquired through the transfer of maternal or other antibodies
Passive Immunization
An artificial and temporary conferring of immunity that does not actively involve the body’s own immune system. The patient is given immunoglobulins, or antibodies, to a virus, rather than learning to create his or her own. Thus the antibodies are not reproduced, and begin to disappear from the body shortly after immunization.
Pastille
Medicated lozenge
Pathogen
Disease producing organism. Any organism or substance capable of producing a disease. Same as Parasite
Pathogenicity
The degree to which a pathogen debilitates its host
Pathological
Disease study related
Pathologist
Doctor who identifies diseases by studying tissues and cells under a microscope, or who supervises diagnositic tests and conducts experiments or other investigations to determine the cause or nature of diseases
Path Urine
Urinalysis
Patient Compliance
Correctly following all the directions given by the doctor or other healthcare providers during the course of therapy
Pau D’Arco
Tabebuia Avellanedae. Tea prepared from the bark of various species of Tabebuia, a classification of about 100 broad-leaved, mostly evergreen trees, native to the West Indies and Central and South America. Exhibits numerous anti-viral properties and has an antibacterial agent which has a positive overall healing effect. A powerful immune system builder, blood cleanser. Has been used effectively for a AIDS, all strains of infection, allergies, cancer, candidiasis, diabetes, leukemia, liver disease, rheumatism, smoker’s cough, tumors, ulcers, and warts
PBX
Punch Biopsy
PCP
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia–A type of pneumonia seen primarily in patients whose immune systems are suppressed
PCPS
Peroral Cholangiopancreatoscopy
PCR
Polymerase Chain Reaction–A process used to amplify pieces of the genetic make-up of a cell or virus. The amplified pieces are then detected and the presence of the virus itself can be determined. Scientific method of detecting the presence in the bloodstream of minute quantities of DNA and RNA. ie. the RNA fragments from Hepatitis C cells. 2. An in vitro technique for rapidly synthesizing large quantities of a given DNA segment that involves separating the DNA into its two complementary strands, binding a primer to each single strand at the end of the given DNA segment where synthesis will start, using DNA polymerase to synthesize two-stranded DNA from each single strand, and repeating the process
PCT
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
PD
Potential Difference
PDGF
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
PE
Pharyngoesophageal
Peak flow
Lung power
Pectins
Kind of dietary fiber. Chemicals related to carbohydrates and are found in fruits and vegetables. Pectins work by binding with bile acids, decreasing cholesterol and fat absorption. Effective in preventing and treating gallstones. There is also evidence that the regular use of Pectin may lessen the severity of diabetes
Pectoral
Agent used to treat diseases of the respiratory tract, Related to the chest
Peer Review
The process by which a medical article is evaluated by experts before it is published. Although this process is effective in preventing flawed studies from being published before the flaws are corrected, it can occasionally stifle new ideas. The best traditional medical journals have rigorous peer review processes to ensure that only the most carefully conducted studies are published
PEG
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
Pegasys™
Peginterferon alfa-2a. (adverse events with Pegasys™ were similar to those seen with traditional interferon regimens, such as fatigue, headache, myalgia/arthralgia, flu-like symptoms, nausea/vomiting, injection site reactions, fever, chills, diarrhea, partial alopecia, abdominal pain, depression, irritability, insomnia, dizziness and anorexia
PEG Interferon
Interferon attached to molecule of Polyethylene Glycol; increased ½ life and renal clearance make it a long acting, weekly injection
Peliosis Hepatits
A condition in which microscopic pools of blood are present throughout the liver parenchyma, which may lead to congestion and necrosis. An abnormal condition characterized by the occurrence of numerous small blood-filled cystic lesions throughout the liver
Pellegra
Syndrome caused by a deficiency of niacin (or failure to convert tryptophan to niacin). Characterized by skin inflammation, inflammation of mucous membrmes, psychic disturbances and diarrhea
Penetration
The stage of viral replication at which the virus genome enters the cell
Pennyroyal
Mentha Pulegium. Used as a carminative to relieve gas, stimulate digestive action and to relieve nausea. A mild tea brewed from the leaves of this plant is often recommended to induce sweating to aid in eliminating toxins from the body
Pennywort
Centella Asiatica (L.) Urban. Also called Centella and Gotu Kola. See Gotu Kola
Peony
Paeonia Officinalis. Used for its antispasmodic, diuretic, and sedative properties. For treating epilepsy, gout, jaundice, bladder and kidney problems
Peppermint
Herb used for intestinal and nervous disorders. Used in teas, oil, tinctures. Can help relieve diarrhea, nasal congestion, soothe sore muscles and irritable bowel syndrome. Peppermint oil is highly concentrated and should be used only in the small amounts. Pure menthol is poisonous and should never be taken internally
Pepsin
Enzyme produced in the stomach that breaks down protein into simpler molecules
Peptic
Digestion related
Peptic Ulcer
Open sore on the lining of the esophagus, duodenum or stomach. An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, an ulcer in the duodenum, a duodenal ulcer
Peptides
Any member of a class of compounds of low molecular weight which yield two or more amino acids on hydrolysis. Formed by loss of water from the NH2 and COOH groups of adjacent amino acids, they are known as di- tri-, tetra- (etc.) peptides, depending on the number of amino acids in the molecule. Peptides form the constituent parts of proteins
Peracute
Very acute and violent
Per Capita Rate
A rate which is proportional to the number of individuals in a population
Percutaneous
Through the skin, absorption or passage of substances into the body through unbroken skin. ie. absorbed through the skin or inhaled
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
Diagnostic test in which an x-ray is taken of the gallbladder and bile ducts after a needle has been passed through the skin, ribs, and liver so that dye can be injected into the liver’s duct network
Perforated Ulcer
Ulcer that has extended through the full thickness of the wall of the stomach or the duodenum, allowing stomach juice to leak into the peritoneal cavity.
Perforation
Abnormal hole in the wall of a hollow organ
Perennial
Persistent
Perforation
Tearing or boring through a vessel, duct, intestine, or organ
Perfuse
To cause to flow or spread, to force a fluid through an organ or tissue especially by way of the blood vessels. i.e. perfuse a liver with salt solution
Perfusion
Through passage of fluid
Peri
Prefix meaning around
Periarthritis
Joint inflammation
Perihepatitis
Inflammation of the peritoneal capsule of the liver
Perinatal
Between the 28th week of pregnancy and the end of the first week of life
Perinatal Hepatitis
Hepatitis infection which can be seen to have occurred at or around the time of birth
Perinatal Transmission
Transmission of an infectious disease from Mother to infant. This can take place in the uterus during or after birth
Perineal
Related to the area around the pelvic region
Perineum
Area between the thighs, extending from the anus to the external genitals
Perioperative
Immediate pre and post operative
Perioral
Mouth related
Peripheral Neuropathy
Functional disturbance of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
Peristalsis
Progressive wavelike muscular contractions that move materials through the upper GI tract
Peritoneal Dialysis
Method of purifying the blood by flushing the abdominal cavity with a dilute salt solution
Peritoneum
Transparent covering of the organs that lies just behind the muscular wall of the abdomen. Lining of the abdominal cavity
Peritonitis
Inflammation of the transparent membrane that covers most of the abdomen beneath the muscle layer. Usually due to intestinal perforation
Perivascular
Around a vessel
Periwinkle
An excellent astringent that may be used either internally or externally. Its main use is in the treatment of excessive menstrual flow, either during the menstrual period itself, or with blood loss between periods
Pernicious
Fatal
Peroral
By mouth
Peroxidation
Type of oxidation that results in the formation of peroxides in body tissues which contain high proportions of oxygen
Persistant
Disease or medical condition that is continued or repeated
Persistant Infection
Infections in which ongoing virus replication occurs, but the virus adjusts its replication and pathogenicity so as to avoid killing host. They differ from chronic infections in that whereas in chronic infections, the virus is usually eventually cleared by the host (unless the infection proves fatal), in persistent infections, the virus may continue to be present and to replicate in the host for its entire lifetime
Petechia(e)
Small, purplish red spot, caused by bleeding under the skin
pg
Picogram (=micromicrogram)
pH
Hydrogen ion concentration
PH
A numerical scale of 1-14 that measures the acidity-alkalinity of a substance. Normal arterial blood pH is approximately 7.4
Phagocytic
Pertaining to phagocytes –scavenger cells that ingest bacteria
Phagocytosis
Destruction of bacteria. The engulfing of microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles by phagocytic cells
Pharmacognosy
Science encompassing those phases of knowledge relating to natural products which are generally of medicinal value and primarily of plant origin. Natural product medicine
Pharmacokinetic
Action of drugs in the body
Pharmacological
Drug science related
Pharmacology
Used with drugs and exogenously administered chemical substances for their effects on living tissues and organisms. Includes acceleration and inhibition of physiological and biochemical processes and other pharmacologic mechanisms of action
Pharmacon
Drug
PHC
Primary Heptacellular Carcinoma
Phenotype
The sum total of visible primary traits which characterize the members of a group. The visible expression of genotype
Phenylalanine
Essential amino acid. Precursor to tyrosine which is used to manufacture certain hormones (dopa, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) which are important for the transmission of nerve impulses. As neurotransmitters, these substances are believed to influence mood, appetite control and memory. Also see DLPA
Phlebitis
Vein inflammation
Phlebography
Vein X-ray
Phlebotomy
The removal of blood from a vein for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
Phosphatidyl Choline
Most significant component of Lecithin. Emulsifies and breaks down fat deposits in the body, which make it helpful in the prevention of gallstones, atherosclerosis, heart disease, and liver problems. Research has shown that Phosphatidyl Choline is beneficial in depression, memory loss and neurological disorders. It is 3 times more potent than Lecithin
Phosphoamino Acids
Amino acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule
Phosphodiester Bond
Not a precise term. Refers to any molecule in which two parts are joined through a phosphate group. Examples are found in RNA, DNA, phospholipids, cyclic nucleotides, nucleotide diphosphates and triphosphates
Phospholipid
Also called Phosphatide. Fat or lipid containing phosphorus found in high quantities in the brain and very important to the function of cellular membranes and to the nervous system. Any of numerous lipids (as lecithins and sphingomyelin) in which phosphoric acid as well as a fatty acid is esterified to glycerol and which are found in all living cells and in the bilayers of plasma membranes
Phosphorolysis
A reversible reaction analogous to hydrolysis in which phosphoric acid functions in a manner similar to that of water with the formation of a phosphate (as glucose-1-phosphate in the breakdown of liver glycogen)
Phosphorus
Second most abundant mineral in the body found in every living cell. Involved in the proper functioning of both muscles and nerves. Needed for metabolic processes of all cells, to activate many other nutrients. The phosphorus content of the body is approximately one percent of total body weight. Phosphorus combines with fats to form phospholipids. It takes part in the production of energy for the body, and it is second only to calcium as a constituent of bones and teeth. Phosphorus is necessary for metabolic functions relating to the brain and the nerves, as well as for muscle action and enzyme formation.
Photodynamic Therapy
Treatment that destroys cancer cells with drugs and lasers that become active when exposed to light
Physiological
Normal
Phytochemical
Substances that occur naturally in plants and have been shown in research to possibly prevent or cure disease
Phytonutrient
Nutrient derived from a plant
Phytosterol
Sterol derived from plants
Pigmented Liver
One containing pigment, usually a result of malaria and melanemia, or the Dubin-Johnson syndrome
Pityriasis
Scaling of the skin
PL
Phospholipid
Placebo
A drug or treatment designed to appear identical to the actual treatment being tested, but lacking the active chemical. Placebos are sometimes referred to as sugar pills
Plantain
Used as an astringent, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, and hemostatic. Also used externally for various skin problems, including ringworm, and as a douche for leucorrhea
Plaque
Deposit of fatty buildup in the inner lining of the walls of an artery
Plasma
Clear yellowish part of the blood, lymph or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended. Also contains dissolved proteins
Plasma Cell
Large oval shaped cell that contains deeply staining chromatin material and is associated with the production of immunoglobulins
Plasma-Derived Mediators
Proteins which circulate in the plasma. They are rarely active in their native state, and more often require activation to be functional
Plasma Membrane
Delicate structure which encloses the cell, separating the contents of the cell from the surrounding environment
Plasma Protein
Blood protein
Plasma Expander
Blood expander
Plasmids
Any extrachromosomal replicating unit or hereditary determinant, also called paragene
Plasminogen
Part of the blood
Platelet
Smaller than a red blood cell, found in the blood, promotes coagulation, Thrombocyte
Platelet-Activating Factor
PAF–Phospholipid that is produced especially by mast cells and basophils, causes the aggregation of blood platelets and the release of blood-platelet substances (as serotonin or histamine), is a mediator of inflammation (as in asthma)
Platelet, Blood
One of the minute protoplasmic disks of vertebrate blood that assist in blood clotting, Platelet, Thrombocyte
Platelet Count
Thrombocytosis is seen in many inflammatory disorders and myeloproliferative states, as well as in acute or chronic blood loss, hemolytic anemias, carcinomatosis, status post-splenectomy, post- exercise, etc. Thrombocytopenia is divided pathophysiologically into production defects and consumption defects based on examination of the bone marrow aspirate or biopsy for the presence of megakaryocytes. Production defects are seen in Wiskott-Aldritch syndrome, May-Hegglin anomaly, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Chediak-Higashi anomaly, Fanconi’s syndrome, aplastic anemia, marrow replacement, megaloblastic and severe iron deficiency anemias, uremia, etc. Consumption defects are seen in autoimmune thrombocytopenias (including ITP and systemic lupus), DIC, TTP, congenital hemangiomas, hypersplenism, following massive hemorrhage, and in many severe nfections
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
A mitogenic growth factor that is found especially in platelets, consists of two polypeptide chains linked by bonds containing two sulfur atoms each, stimulates cell proliferation (as in connective tissue, smooth muscle, and neuroglia), and plays a role in wound healing
PLC
Phospholipase C. Primary Liver Cancer
Pledget
Absorbent cotton used to apply medication or to absorb another substance
Pleurisy Root
Used in the treatment of bronchitis and other chest conditions. An effective diaphoretic and anti-spasmodic. Used to treat pleurisy and pneumonia. Reduces inflammations and assists expectoration
Pleuritic
Related to the lining of the lungs and chest cavity; when describing pain, meaning that the pain is increased with deep breathing
Plexus
Network
Plication
A folding or putting together in pleats; specifically, an operation for reducing the size of a hollow viscus by taking folds or tucks in its walls
PMN
Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
Pneumonia
Inflammation of the lung(s) caused by infection
po
Orally
PO2
The oxygen tension in arterial blood
Poisson Distribution
The distribution which arises when parasites are distributed at random amongst hosts
Polio
Highly contagious infectious disease caused by a filterable virus and occurs mostly in children ; in its acute form it involves the spinal cord causing paralysis
Poly
Combining form meaning many or much
Polyarthritis
Simultaneous inflammation of several joints
Polyarthralgia
Pain in several joints unrelated to inflammation
Polycystic Disease
Cystic degeneration of the liver usually associated with congential polycystic kidneys
Polycystic Liver
Congenital cystic disease of the liver
Polycythemia
Polycythemia is defined as an increase in total body erythrocyte mass. As opposed to the situation with anemias, the physician may directly measure rbc mass using radiolabeling by chromium-51, so as to differentiate polycythemia (absolute erythrocytosis, as seen in polycythemia vera, chronic hypoxia, smoker’s polycythemia, ectopic erythropoietin production, methemoglobinemia, and high O2 affinity hemoglobins) from relative erythrocytosis (as seen in stress polycythemia and dehydration)
Polydipsia
Chronic thirst. Excess drinking
Polymorphic
In a variety of shapes
Polymorphism
Literally means “many shapes.” A polymorphism is any physical manifestation between a species of living organisms which is variable through genetic influence. The blood types are a well-known polymorphism
Polyphagia
Excess appetite
Polyposis
Presence of several polyps
Polyprotein
A long polypeptide encoding several mature proteins which are subsequently released by protease cleavage
Polyps
Mass of tissue that protrudes from the mucous lining of an organ such as the intestine
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that can be broken down into two or more simple sugars
Polymerase
Enzymes that catalyse the synthesis of nucleic acids on preexisting nucleic acid templates, assembling RNA from ribonucleotides or DNA from deoxyribonucleotides
Polymerase Chain Reaction–PCR
The first practical system for in vitro amplification of DNA and as such one of the most important recent developments in molecular biology. Two synthetic oligonucleotide primers, which are complementary to two regions of the target DNA (one for each strand) to be amplified, are added to the target DNA (that need not be pure), in the presence of excess deoxynucleotides and Taq polymerase, a heat stable DNA polymerase. In a series (typically 30) of temperature cycles, the target DNA is repeatedly denatured (around 90_C), annealed to the primers (typically at 50-60_C) and a daughter strand extended from the primers (72_C). As the daughter strands themselves act as templates for subsequent cycles, DNA fragments matching both primers are amplified exponentially, rather than linearly. The original DNA need thus be neither pure nor abundant and the polymerase chain reaction has accordingly become widely used not only in research, but in clinical diagnostics and forensic science
Polytherapy
Treatment using several drugs
Polyunsaturated Fat
Highly unsaturated fat that is found in greatest amounts in foods from plants, including corn, safflower, soybean and sunflower oils. When substituted for saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat helps reduce blood cholesterol
Polyuria
Production of excessive amounts of urine, causing frequent urination, in this case because of the loss of body water in the urine, accompanying the loss of large amounts of sugar (glucose)
Polyvalent
Specific for more than one antigen
Poorly Differentiated
Referring to a malignancy, not possessing histological characteristics of the originating tissues – usually a feature of pathological aggression
Porphyria, Acute Intermittent
A form of hepatic porphyria characterized by periodic attacks of gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal colic, paralyses, and psychiatric disorders. The onset of this condition is usually in the third or fourth decade of life
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
A form of hepatic porphyria characterized by photosensitivity resulting in bullae that rupture easily to form shallow ulcers. This condition occurs in two forms: a sporadic, nonfamilial form that begins in middle age and has normal amounts of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase with diminished activity in the liver; and a familial form in which there is an autosomal dominant inherited deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in the liver and red blood cells
Porphyria, Hepatic
Porphyria in which the liver is the site where excess formation of porphyrin or its precursors is found
Portacaval Shunt
A surgical shunt by which the portal vein is made to empty into the inferior vena cava in order to bypass a damaged liver
Porta Hepatis
Also called Transverse Fissure. The fissure running transversely on the underside of the liver where most of the vessels enter or leave
Portal
Communicating part or area of an organism, such as Portal Vein. The point at which something enters the body. Of or relating to the Porta Hepatis
Portal Circulation
Pertaining to the flow of blood through the portal vein
Portal Cirrhosis
Laennec’s Cirrhosis
Portal Hypertension
From fibrosis and regenerative nodules, which disrupt the portal venous blood flow, increased pressure in the blood vessels entering the liver, which often occurs with cirrhosis. Portal hypertension can result in ascites or edema
Portal System
A system of veins that begins and ends in capillaries
Portal System, Hepatic
A group of veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach, spleen, intestine, and pancreas to the sinusoids of the liver
Portal Vein
Large vein through which oxygen-depleted blood from the spleen, intestines, gallbladder, stomach and the pancreas flows to the liver. The principle tributaries to the portal vein are the lienal vein, with blood from the stomach, the greater omentum — a curtain of membrane and fat that hangs down over the intestines, the pancreas, the large intestine and the spleen; the superior mesenteric vein, with blood from the small intestine and part of the large intestine; the pyloric veins, with blood from the stomach; and the cystic veins, with blood from the gallbladder. In the liver the blood from the portal vein flows through a network of microscopic vessels called sinusoids in which the blood is relieved of worn out red cells, bacteria, and other debris and in which nutrients are added to the blood or removed from it for storage. The blood leaves the liver by way of the hepatic veins
Portal Venule
The final branch of the portal venous system that arises from a terminal portal vein or conducting PV, and enters the parenchyma to form a vascular septum. Also called a “septal” PV
Post
After
Posterior
Towards or at the back of
Postnecrotic Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis of the liver following widespread necrosis of liver cells especially as a result of hepatitis
Posthepatitic
Occurring after and especially as a result of hepatitis. Occurring or located behind the liver
Post transfusion Hepatitis
Hepatitis that occurs following a transfusion
Potassium
Mineral that serves as an electrolyte and is involved in the balance of fluid within the body. Our bodies contain more than twice as much potassium as sodium (typically nine ounces versus four ounces). About 98 percent of total body potassium is inside our cells. The principal cation (positive ion) of the fluid within cells. It is important in controlling the activity of the heart, muscles, nervous system and just about every cell in the body. Also regulates the water balance and acid-base balance in the blood and tissues. Evidence is showing that potassium is also involved in bone calcification. Potassium is a co-factor in many reactions, especially those involving energy production and muscle building. Increase in serum potassium is seen in states characterized by excess destruction of cells, with redistribution of K+ from the intra- to the extracellular compartment, as in massive hemolysis, crush injuries, hyperkinetic activity, and malignant hyperpyrexia. Decreased renal K+ excretion is seen in acute renal failure, some cases of chronic renal failure, Addison’s disease, and other sodium-depleted states. Hyperkalemia due to pure excess of K+ intake is usually iatrogenic. Drugs causing hyperkalemia include amiloride, aminocaproic acid, antineoplastic agents, epinephrine, heparin, histamine, indomethacin, isoniazid, lithium, mannitol, methicillin, potassium salts of penicillin, phenformin, propranolol, salt substitutes, spironolactone, succinylcholine, tetracycline, triamterene, and tromethamine. Spurious hyperkalemia can be seen when a patient exercises his/her arm with the tourniquet in place prior to venipuncture. Hemolysis and marked thrombocytosis may cause false elevations of serum K+ as well. Failure to promptly separate serum from cells in a clot tube is a notorious source of falsely elevated potassium. Decrease in serum potassium is seen usually in states characterized by excess K+ loss, such as in vomiting, diarrhea, villous adenoma of the colorectum, certain renal tubular defects, hypercorticoidism, etc. Redistribution hypokalemia is seen in glucose/insulin therapy, alkalosis (where serum K+ is lost into cells and into urine), and familial periodic paralysis. Drugs causing hypokalemia include amphotericin, carbenicillin, carbenoxolone, corticosteroids, diuretics, licorice, salicylates, and ticarcillin
Potassium Chloride
Potassium is a vital element in the body. Potassium supplements help prevent and treat potassium deficiency in people taking diuretics
Potentialization
Joint action of two drugs
Potentiation
Joint action of two drugs
Poultice
Soft mass, usually heated then spread on cloth and applied to sores or inflamed areas to relieve pain, supply warmth, or to act as a antiseptic or counterirritant
PP
Pancreatic Polypeptide
PPD
Purified Protein Derivative (tuberculin)
PPJ
Pure Pancreatic Juice
ppm
Parts Per Million
Pre
Prefix meaning in front of
Precancerous
Unusual changes in body cells that may or may not become cancerous
Preclinical
Before the disease becomes recognizable
Precursor
Forerunner, Parent Substance
PRED
Prednisone
Predisposition
Tendency
Prednisone
Anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of arthritis, asthma, autoimmune hepatitis and given post transplant
Pre-existing Condition
A medical problem that existed before or at the time of a defined date
Preoperative
Before an operation
Presentation
Angle
Presurface Protein 1, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
226 amino acid product of hepatitis B virus S gene + 163 amino acids; may be important in virion assembly & infectivity
Presynaptic
Before a nerve/organ joint
Prevalence
The proportion of the host population infected (or with some marker of past or present infection) at a particular time.
In regard to hepatitis, prevalence relates to the number of cases in the community at any one time. It is usually expressed as a percentage or ratio. eg. 1% of the population, or 1 in 100 people
Prevalence Models
Prevalence models are compartmental models dividing the host population into, for example, susceptible, latent, infectious and immune individuals
Prevention
Getting rid of or staying away from things or behaviors known to cause diseases
Prickly Ash Bark
Has anti-tubercular properties
Primary
First
Primary Carcinoma of the Liver
Metastatic malignant neoplasm, ususally from breast, lung, or gastrointestinal cancer
Primary Lobule
The cone-shaped zone of parenchyma formed by the sinusoids given off by 2 adjacent portal venules. The primary lobule thus encompasses 2 portal venules, their inlet sinusoids, hepatic arterioles, bile ductules, and canals of Hering
prn
As needed
Pro
Prefix meaning before or in front of
Proanthocyanidins
Class of compounds found in the family of bioflavonoids
Probiotic
Refers to organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance. They are beneficial or “friendly” intestinal bacteria
Proctitis
Inflammation of the rectum lining
Proctologist
Physician who specializes in treating disorders of the anus and rectum
Proctoscope
Short, rigid metal tube that can be inserted into the rectum and anus, permitting an internal examination of these organs
Prodromal
Fore running symptoms of infection. Occuring Before
Progeny
Offspring of animals or plants
Prognosis
Outlook, Prediction of probable outcome or course of a disease; Chance of recovery
Prolapse
Falling down or sinking in. Slipping  or falling of a body part from its usual position
Proliferation
Multiplication
Proline
Non-essential amino acid. Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles, important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons
Promiscuity
Sexual activity that is not limited to one partner
Prophylactic
Any agent or device that prevents or helps to prevent the development of disease
Prophylactic Medication
Medication that helps prevent disease
Prophylaxis
Prevention of disease. In Military Medicine–Measures taken to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of chemical agents
Propulsive
Driving
Prospective Study
A study in which people are initially enrolled and then followed up at subsequent times
Prostaglandin
Fatty acid
Prostate Gland
Gland in men that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra and produces a secretion that liquefies coagulated semen
Protease
Enzyme that digests proteins. Any enzyme which acts upon the peptide bonds of proteins and peptides; a protein-splitting or hydrolyzing enzyme
Protein
Nitrogen rich compounds that are formed from a complex series of amino acids. Fundamental to many of the processes of life, fundamental building blocks for much of the substance of cellular and non-cellular life
Proteins
Nitrogenous organic compounds, containing more than about 100 amino acid residues, molecular weight 8,000-200,000, in vegetable and animal matter. Proteins yield amino acids on hydrolysis and are foods assimilated as amino acids and reconstructed in the protoplasm
Proteins, Viral
Proteins found in any species of virus
Protein X, Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus
RN refers to strain New York; amino acid sequence has been determined
Proteolytic
Property of a substance that breaks down proteins
Proteolyzed
Having been subjected to proteolysis
Prothrombin
Blood factor II
Prothrombin Time
The ratio between the time it takes a test sample of blood to clot after addition of optimal quantities of calcium and the natural clotting stimulator thromboplastin compared with the time for a standard containing a normal quantity of the clotting precursor fibrinogen, which is reduced by the anticoagulant Coumadin
Protocol
Step by Step procedure that is followed in order to perform a task
Protozoon
Single cell creature
Provirus
Virus that has become and integral part of the host cell chromosome and is transmitted from one cell generation to another
Proximal
Nearest to or next to a point of reference
Prurigo
Chronic inflammatory skin disease marked by a general eruption of small, itching, pus-filled bumps
Pruritic
Itchy
Pruritus
Itching
PS
Pyloric Stenosis
PSC
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
Pseudo
Combining form signifying false or spurious
Pseudotumor
Tumor like growth
psi
Pounds per Square Inch
Psoriasis
Common chronic, squamous dermatosis, marked by exacerbations and remissions and having a polygenic inheritance pattern. The most distinctive histological findings in well-developed psoriasis are Munro microabscesses and spongiform pustules. It is characterized clinically by the presence of rounded, circumscribed, erythematous, dry, scaling patches of various sizes, covered by grayish white or silvery white, umbilicated, and lamellar scales, which have a predilection for the extensor surfaces, nails, scalp, genitalia, and lumbosacral region. Central clearing and coalescence of the lesions produce a wide variety of clinical configurations, including annular or circinate, discoid or nummular, figurate, and gyrate arrangements. Also called psoriasis vulgaris
PSPD
Posterior Superior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery
PSU
Primary Site Undetermined
Psychogenic
Caused by mental factors
Psycholeptic
Hopelessness and inertia related
Psychosomatic
The production of physical illness or symptoms by emotional or psychological disturbance, with absent or limited awareness
Psychotropic
Mood altering drug
Psyllium
Plantago Psyllium. Helps rid the body of excess cholesterol. Excellent laxative that offers relief from hemorrhoid and gastrointestinal irritations
PTHBD
Percuateous Transhepatic Biliary Dishcharge
PTHC
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
PTSD
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
PU
Peptic Ulcer
PU/PD
Polyuria and Polydipsia
PUD
Peptic Ulcer Disease
PUFA
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
Pulmonary Embolism
Obstruction of blood vessels in the lung,or pulmonary artery by a blood clot or other material
Pulse
A pulsating artery that gives evidence that the heart is beating, usually about 70 times per minute
Pumpkin Seed
Has the ability to rid the body of intestinal parasites such as roundworms and tapeworms
Punctum
Spot, point or minute orifice
Purgative
Strong laxative, Substance that causes vigorous evacuation of the bowels
Purge
Cleanse, to get rid of anything undesirable
Purpura
Blood spots, bruising and discoloring to skin. Bleeding under the skin.
Purulent
Pusy, containing, consisting of, forming pus, Foul
PV
Portal Vein
Pycnogenol
Trademark for specific bioflavonoids extracted from pine bark. Reduces inflammation and the pain of arthritis and other conditions, an antioxidant, fighting the corrosive free radicals that damage cells and promote a variety of life-threatening conditions, Stabilizes the vital protein collagen, improving skin and blood vessel health
Pygeum
Used for the treatment of prostatic hypertrophy
Pylorus
Opening from the stomach into the duodenum
Pyogenic
Formation of pus
Pyrexia
Fever
Pyridoxine
Vitamin B-6. A B-complex vitamin that plays a role as a coenzyme in the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Facilitates the release of glycogen for energy from the liver and muscles. Also participates in the utilization of energy in the brain and nervous tissue and is essential for the regulation of the central nervous system. A deficiency of Pyridoxine may result in anemia, insomnia, nervousness, skin eruptions, loss of hair, loss of muscular control, mouth disorders, muscular weakness, dermatitis, arm & leg cramps, slow learning, and water retention
Pyrogenic, Pyrogen
Fever inducing, capable of producing fever; Of or relating to the production of a fever
Pyrosis
Heartburn
PYY
Peptide YY

© Vikki Shaw