The latest research & treatment news about Hepatitis C infection, diagnosis, symptoms and treatment.

Glossary of Medical Terms – P

Phosphorus; Pressure
Para Aminobenzoic Acid. May be considered part of the Vitamin B complex. As a coenzyme, PABA functions in the breakdown and utilization of proteins and in the formation of red blood cells, aids healthy bacteria in producing folic acid; contains sun screening properties; aids in the assimilation of Pantothenic acid; and returns hair to its natural color. A deficiency of Para Amino Benzoic Acid may cause constipation, depression, digestive disorders, eczema, extreme fatigue, headaches, irritability, nervousness, and/or premature graying of the hair
Arterial carbon dioxide pressure
Alveolar oxygen pressure
Arterial oxygen pressure
Carbon dioxide pressure (or tension)
Platelet Activating Factor
Pain Behavior
Observable actions other than descriptive speech arising out of the experience of pain
Refers to blood pressure taken under emergency conditions when listening for the systolic and diastolic pressures with a stethoscope is impossible. Taken by feeling (palpation) the pulse
Act of feeling with the hand. Physical examination in medical diagnosis by pressure of the hand or fingers to the surface of the body , to determine the condition (as of size or consistency) of an underlying part or organ
Subjective sensation of unduly rapid or irregular heartbeat
Giving relief but not cure
Palmar Erythema
Red Palms. Red palms are seen in people with advanced liver disease, due to expansion of small blood vessels (capillaries)
A large, elongated, racemose gland situated transversely behind the stomach, between the spleen and the duodenum
Inflammation of the pancreas
Low Red Blood Cell & low White Blood Count and low platelet count
An epidemic widely distributed in space
Pangamic Acid
Vitamin B-15. Exhibits antioxidant properties. Lowers blood cholesterol levels, Stimulates immune system response, Protect the liver from alcohol damage, cures fatigue, wards off hangovers, and assists in the regulation of hormones
Pantothenic Acid
B-complex vitamin necessary for the normal functioning of the adrenal gland, which directly affects growth. Essential for the formation of fatty acids. As a coenzyme, it participates in the utilization of riboflavin and in the release of energy from carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Improves the body’s resistance to stress; helps the adrenal glands, and fights infections by building antibodies. A deficiency of Pantothenic Acid may result in burning feet, digestive disorders, dizzy spells, muscle cramps, restlessness, retarded growth, skin abnormalities, stomach stress, and vomiting
Peak Acid Output
Pancreatitis Associated Protein
Carica Papaya. Aids in the breakdown and metabolism of protein, exhibits anti-ulcer action, and helps relieve indigestion
Benign epithelial neoplasm
Prefix meaning beside or near
Para-Aortic-Lymph nodes
Alongside the aorta, or major blood vessel carrying oxygen-rich blood to the body
Fluid removal
Organism that lives in or on another organism, usually causing damage to the host organism. Any disease causing organism. An organism exhibiting an obligatory dependence on another organism, its host, which is detrimental to the host
Parasite related
Agent that kills parasites
Thyroid related
Beside a vein
Functional tissue of an organ. Internal anatomy of an organ
Hepatocytes are parenchymal cells of the liver
Not by mouth, any substance that is introduced into the body anyway except by mouth. Not in or through the digestive system, introduced otherwise than by way of the intestines and occurring outside the intestine
Parenteral Transmission
Transmission of infection via the parenteral route; for example via contamination with infected blood or blood products
Partial paralysis
A perverted sensation of crawling, tingling or burning of the skin. Common in neuropathies
Outer wall related
Swollen glands
In sudden attacks
Petroselinum Sativum. Used as a carminative to relieve gas and stimulate digestive action, the root has been used for its mild diuretic activity, helping to increase urine output and rid the body of excess fluids. An excellent breath freshener
Edulis. Has a sedative and tranquilizing effect. Said to have an anti-spasmodic effect especially when associated tension
Passion Flower
Also called Maypop and Wild Passion Flower. Reduces spasms and depresses the central nervous system. Used as a sedative in nervous disorders, difficulties in sleeping, anxiety, restlessness, childbirth and menopause
Passive Immunity
Immunity which has been acquired through the transfer of maternal or other antibodies
Passive Immunization
An artificial and temporary conferring of immunity that does not actively involve the body’s own immune system. The patient is given immunoglobulins, or antibodies, to a virus, rather than learning to create his or her own. Thus the antibodies are not reproduced, and begin to disappear from the body shortly after immunization.
Medicated lozenge
Disease producing organism. Any organism or substance capable of producing a disease. Same as Parasite
The degree to which a pathogen debilitates its host
Disease study related
Doctor who identifies diseases by studying tissues and cells under a microscope, or who supervises diagnositic tests and conducts experiments or other investigations to determine the cause or nature of diseases
Path Urine
Patient Compliance
Correctly following all the directions given by the doctor or other healthcare providers during the course of therapy
Pau D’Arco
Tabebuia Avellanedae. Tea prepared from the bark of various species of Tabebuia, a classification of about 100 broad-leaved, mostly evergreen trees, native to the West Indies and Central and South America. Exhibits numerous anti-viral properties and has an antibacterial agent which has a positive overall healing effect. A powerful immune system builder, blood cleanser. Has been used effectively for a AIDS, all strains of infection, allergies, cancer, candidiasis, diabetes, leukemia, liver disease, rheumatism, smoker’s cough, tumors, ulcers, and warts
Punch Biopsy
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia–A type of pneumonia seen primarily in patients whose immune systems are suppressed
Peroral Cholangiopancreatoscopy
Polymerase Chain Reaction–A process used to amplify pieces of the genetic make-up of a cell or virus. The amplified pieces are then detected and the presence of the virus itself can be determined. Scientific method of detecting the presence in the bloodstream of minute quantities of DNA and RNA. ie. the RNA fragments from Hepatitis C cells. 2. An in vitro technique for rapidly synthesizing large quantities of a given DNA segment that involves separating the DNA into its two complementary strands, binding a primer to each single strand at the end of the given DNA segment where synthesis will start, using DNA polymerase to synthesize two-stranded DNA from each single strand, and repeating the process
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
Potential Difference
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
Peak flow
Lung power
Kind of dietary fiber. Chemicals related to carbohydrates and are found in fruits and vegetables. Pectins work by binding with bile acids, decreasing cholesterol and fat absorption. Effective in preventing and treating gallstones. There is also evidence that the regular use of Pectin may lessen the severity of diabetes
Agent used to treat diseases of the respiratory tract, Related to the chest
Peer Review
The process by which a medical article is evaluated by experts before it is published. Although this process is effective in preventing flawed studies from being published before the flaws are corrected, it can occasionally stifle new ideas. The best traditional medical journals have rigorous peer review processes to ensure that only the most carefully conducted studies are published
Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy
Peginterferon alfa-2a. (adverse events with Pegasys™ were similar to those seen with traditional interferon regimens, such as fatigue, headache, myalgia/arthralgia, flu-like symptoms, nausea/vomiting, injection site reactions, fever, chills, diarrhea, partial alopecia, abdominal pain, depression, irritability, insomnia, dizziness and anorexia
PEG Interferon
Interferon attached to molecule of Polyethylene Glycol; increased ½ life and renal clearance make it a long acting, weekly injection
Peliosis Hepatits
A condition in which microscopic pools of blood are present throughout the liver parenchyma, which may lead to congestion and necrosis. An abnormal condition characterized by the occurrence of numerous small blood-filled cystic lesions throughout the liver
Syndrome caused by a deficiency of niacin (or failure to convert tryptophan to niacin). Characterized by skin inflammation, inflammation of mucous membrmes, psychic disturbances and diarrhea
The stage of viral replication at which the virus genome enters the cell
Mentha Pulegium. Used as a carminative to relieve gas, stimulate digestive action and to relieve nausea. A mild tea brewed from the leaves of this plant is often recommended to induce sweating to aid in eliminating toxins from the body
Centella Asiatica (L.) Urban. Also called Centella and Gotu Kola. See Gotu Kola
Paeonia Officinalis. Used for its antispasmodic, diuretic, and sedative properties. For treating epilepsy, gout, jaundice, bladder and kidney problems
Herb used for intestinal and nervous disorders. Used in teas, oil, tinctures. Can help relieve diarrhea, nasal congestion, soothe sore muscles and irritable bowel syndrome. Peppermint oil is highly concentrated and should be used only in the small amounts. Pure menthol is poisonous and should never be taken internally
Enzyme produced in the stomach that breaks down protein into simpler molecules
Digestion related
Peptic Ulcer
Open sore on the lining of the esophagus, duodenum or stomach. An ulcer in the stomach is called a gastric ulcer, an ulcer in the duodenum, a duodenal ulcer
Any member of a class of compounds of low molecular weight which yield two or more amino acids on hydrolysis. Formed by loss of water from the NH2 and COOH groups of adjacent amino acids, they are known as di- tri-, tetra- (etc.) peptides, depending on the number of amino acids in the molecule. Peptides form the constituent parts of proteins
Very acute and violent
Per Capita Rate
A rate which is proportional to the number of individuals in a population
Through the skin, absorption or passage of substances into the body through unbroken skin. ie. absorbed through the skin or inhaled
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
Diagnostic test in which an x-ray is taken of the gallbladder and bile ducts after a needle has been passed through the skin, ribs, and liver so that dye can be injected into the liver’s duct network
Perforated Ulcer
Ulcer that has extended through the full thickness of the wall of the stomach or the duodenum, allowing stomach juice to leak into the peritoneal cavity.
Abnormal hole in the wall of a hollow organ
Tearing or boring through a vessel, duct, intestine, or organ
To cause to flow or spread, to force a fluid through an organ or tissue especially by way of the blood vessels. i.e. perfuse a liver with salt solution
Through passage of fluid
Prefix meaning around
Joint inflammation
Inflammation of the peritoneal capsule of the liver
Between the 28th week of pregnancy and the end of the first week of life
Perinatal Hepatitis
Hepatitis infection which can be seen to have occurred at or around the time of birth
Perinatal Transmission
Transmission of an infectious disease from Mother to infant. This can take place in the uterus during or after birth
Related to the area around the pelvic region
Area between the thighs, extending from the anus to the external genitals
Immediate pre and post operative
Mouth related
Peripheral Neuropathy
Functional disturbance of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord
Progressive wavelike muscular contractions that move materials through the upper GI tract
Peritoneal Dialysis
Method of purifying the blood by flushing the abdominal cavity with a dilute salt solution
Transparent covering of the organs that lies just behind the muscular wall of the abdomen. Lining of the abdominal cavity
Inflammation of the transparent membrane that covers most of the abdomen beneath the muscle layer. Usually due to intestinal perforation
Around a vessel
An excellent astringent that may be used either internally or externally. Its main use is in the treatment of excessive menstrual flow, either during the menstrual period itself, or with blood loss between periods
By mouth
Type of oxidation that results in the formation of peroxides in body tissues which contain high proportions of oxygen
Disease or medical condition that is continued or repeated
Persistant Infection
Infections in which ongoing virus replication occurs, but the virus adjusts its replication and pathogenicity so as to avoid killing host. They differ from chronic infections in that whereas in chronic infections, the virus is usually eventually cleared by the host (unless the infection proves fatal), in persistent infections, the virus may continue to be present and to replicate in the host for its entire lifetime
Small, purplish red spot, caused by bleeding under the skin
Picogram (=micromicrogram)
Hydrogen ion concentration
A numerical scale of 1-14 that measures the acidity-alkalinity of a substance. Normal arterial blood pH is approximately 7.4
Pertaining to phagocytes –scavenger cells that ingest bacteria
Destruction of bacteria. The engulfing of microorganisms, other cells, and foreign particles by phagocytic cells
Science encompassing those phases of knowledge relating to natural products which are generally of medicinal value and primarily of plant origin. Natural product medicine
Action of drugs in the body
Drug science related
Used with drugs and exogenously administered chemical substances for their effects on living tissues and organisms. Includes acceleration and inhibition of physiological and biochemical processes and other pharmacologic mechanisms of action
Primary Heptacellular Carcinoma
The sum total of visible primary traits which characterize the members of a group. The visible expression of genotype
Essential amino acid. Precursor to tyrosine which is used to manufacture certain hormones (dopa, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine) which are important for the transmission of nerve impulses. As neurotransmitters, these substances are believed to influence mood, appetite control and memory. Also see DLPA
Vein inflammation
Vein X-ray
The removal of blood from a vein for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes
Phosphatidyl Choline
Most significant component of Lecithin. Emulsifies and breaks down fat deposits in the body, which make it helpful in the prevention of gallstones, atherosclerosis, heart disease, and liver problems. Research has shown that Phosphatidyl Choline is beneficial in depression, memory loss and neurological disorders. It is 3 times more potent than Lecithin
Phosphoamino Acids
Amino acids that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule
Phosphodiester Bond
Not a precise term. Refers to any molecule in which two parts are joined through a phosphate group. Examples are found in RNA, DNA, phospholipids, cyclic nucleotides, nucleotide diphosphates and triphosphates
Also called Phosphatide. Fat or lipid containing phosphorus found in high quantities in the brain and very important to the function of cellular membranes and to the nervous system. Any of numerous lipids (as lecithins and sphingomyelin) in which phosphoric acid as well as a fatty acid is esterified to glycerol and which are found in all living cells and in the bilayers of plasma membranes
A reversible reaction analogous to hydrolysis in which phosphoric acid functions in a manner similar to that of water with the formation of a phosphate (as glucose-1-phosphate in the breakdown of liver glycogen)
Second most abundant mineral in the body found in every living cell. Involved in the proper functioning of both muscles and nerves. Needed for metabolic processes of all cells, to activate many other nutrients. The phosphorus content of the body is approximately one percent of total body weight. Phosphorus combines with fats to form phospholipids. It takes part in the production of energy for the body, and it is second only to calcium as a constituent of bones and teeth. Phosphorus is necessary for metabolic functions relating to the brain and the nerves, as well as for muscle action and enzyme formation.
Photodynamic Therapy
Treatment that destroys cancer cells with drugs and lasers that become active when exposed to light
Substances that occur naturally in plants and have been shown in research to possibly prevent or cure disease
Nutrient derived from a plant
Sterol derived from plants
Pigmented Liver
One containing pigment, usually a result of malaria and melanemia, or the Dubin-Johnson syndrome
Scaling of the skin
A drug or treatment designed to appear identical to the actual treatment being tested, but lacking the active chemical. Placebos are sometimes referred to as sugar pills
Used as an astringent, demulcent, diuretic, expectorant, and hemostatic. Also used externally for various skin problems, including ringworm, and as a douche for leucorrhea
Deposit of fatty buildup in the inner lining of the walls of an artery
Clear yellowish part of the blood, lymph or intramuscular fluid in which cells are suspended. Also contains dissolved proteins
Plasma Cell
Large oval shaped cell that contains deeply staining chromatin material and is associated with the production of immunoglobulins
Plasma-Derived Mediators
Proteins which circulate in the plasma. They are rarely active in their native state, and more often require activation to be functional
Plasma Membrane
Delicate structure which encloses the cell, separating the contents of the cell from the surrounding environment
Plasma Protein
Blood protein
Plasma Expander
Blood expander
Any extrachromosomal replicating unit or hereditary determinant, also called paragene
Part of the blood
Smaller than a red blood cell, found in the blood, promotes coagulation, Thrombocyte
Platelet-Activating Factor
PAF–Phospholipid that is produced especially by mast cells and basophils, causes the aggregation of blood platelets and the release of blood-platelet substances (as serotonin or histamine), is a mediator of inflammation (as in asthma)
Platelet, Blood
One of the minute protoplasmic disks of vertebrate blood that assist in blood clotting, Platelet, Thrombocyte
Platelet Count
Thrombocytosis is seen in many inflammatory disorders and myeloproliferative states, as well as in acute or chronic blood loss, hemolytic anemias, carcinomatosis, status post-splenectomy, post- exercise, etc. Thrombocytopenia is divided pathophysiologically into production defects and consumption defects based on examination of the bone marrow aspirate or biopsy for the presence of megakaryocytes. Production defects are seen in Wiskott-Aldritch syndrome, May-Hegglin anomaly, Bernard-Soulier syndrome, Chediak-Higashi anomaly, Fanconi’s syndrome, aplastic anemia, marrow replacement, megaloblastic and severe iron deficiency anemias, uremia, etc. Consumption defects are seen in autoimmune thrombocytopenias (including ITP and systemic lupus), DIC, TTP, congenital hemangiomas, hypersplenism, following massive hemorrhage, and in many severe nfections
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
A mitogenic growth factor that is found especially in platelets, consists of two polypeptide chains linked by bonds containing two sulfur atoms each, stimulates cell proliferation (as in connective tissue, smooth muscle, and neuroglia), and plays a role in wound healing
Phospholipase C. Primary Liver Cancer
Absorbent cotton used to apply medication or to absorb another substance
Pleurisy Root
Used in the treatment of bronchitis and other chest conditions. An effective diaphoretic and anti-spasmodic. Used to treat pleurisy and pneumonia. Reduces inflammations and assists expectoration
Related to the lining of the lungs and chest cavity; when describing pain, meaning that the pain is increased with deep breathing
A folding or putting together in pleats; specifically, an operation for reducing the size of a hollow viscus by taking folds or tucks in its walls
Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes
Inflammation of the lung(s) caused by infection
The oxygen tension in arterial blood
Poisson Distribution
The distribution which arises when parasites are distributed at random amongst hosts
Highly contagious infectious disease caused by a filterable virus and occurs mostly in children ; in its acute form it involves the spinal cord causing paralysis
Combining form meaning many or much
Simultaneous inflammation of several joints
Pain in several joints unrelated to inflammation
Polycystic Disease
Cystic degeneration of the liver usually associated with congential polycystic kidneys
Polycystic Liver
Congenital cystic disease of the liver
Polycythemia is defined as an increase in total body erythrocyte mass. As opposed to the situation with anemias, the physician may directly measure rbc mass using radiolabeling by chromium-51, so as to differentiate polycythemia (absolute erythrocytosis, as seen in polycythemia vera, chronic hypoxia, smoker’s polycythemia, ectopic erythropoietin production, methemoglobinemia, and high O2 affinity hemoglobins) from relative erythrocytosis (as seen in stress polycythemia and dehydration)
Chronic thirst. Excess drinking
In a variety of shapes
Literally means “many shapes.” A polymorphism is any physical manifestation between a species of living organisms which is variable through genetic influence. The blood types are a well-known polymorphism
Excess appetite
Presence of several polyps
A long polypeptide encoding several mature proteins which are subsequently released by protease cleavage
Mass of tissue that protrudes from the mucous lining of an organ such as the intestine
Carbohydrates that can be broken down into two or more simple sugars
Enzymes that catalyse the synthesis of nucleic acids on preexisting nucleic acid templates, assembling RNA from ribonucleotides or DNA from deoxyribonucleotides
Polymerase Chain Reaction–PCR
The first practical system for in vitro amplification of DNA and as such one of the most important recent developments in molecular biology. Two synthetic oligonucleotide primers, which are complementary to two regions of the target DNA (one for each strand) to be amplified, are added to the target DNA (that need not be pure), in the presence of excess deoxynucleotides and Taq polymerase, a heat stable DNA polymerase. In a series (typically 30) of temperature cycles, the target DNA is repeatedly denatured (around 90_C), annealed to the primers (typically at 50-60_C) and a daughter strand extended from the primers (72_C). As the daughter strands themselves act as templates for subsequent cycles, DNA fragments matching both primers are amplified exponentially, rather than linearly. The original DNA need thus be neither pure nor abundant and the polymerase chain reaction has accordingly become widely used not only in research, but in clinical diagnostics and forensic science
Treatment using several drugs
Polyunsaturated Fat
Highly unsaturated fat that is found in greatest amounts in foods from plants, including corn, safflower, soybean and sunflower oils. When substituted for saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat helps reduce blood cholesterol
Production of excessive amounts of urine, causing frequent urination, in this case because of the loss of body water in the urine, accompanying the loss of large amounts of sugar (glucose)
Specific for more than one antigen
Poorly Differentiated
Referring to a malignancy, not possessing histological characteristics of the originating tissues – usually a feature of pathological aggression
Porphyria, Acute Intermittent
A form of hepatic porphyria characterized by periodic attacks of gastrointestinal disturbances, abdominal colic, paralyses, and psychiatric disorders. The onset of this condition is usually in the third or fourth decade of life
Porphyria Cutanea Tarda
A form of hepatic porphyria characterized by photosensitivity resulting in bullae that rupture easily to form shallow ulcers. This condition occurs in two forms: a sporadic, nonfamilial form that begins in middle age and has normal amounts of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase with diminished activity in the liver; and a familial form in which there is an autosomal dominant inherited deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase in the liver and red blood cells
Porphyria, Hepatic
Porphyria in which the liver is the site where excess formation of porphyrin or its precursors is found
Portacaval Shunt
A surgical shunt by which the portal vein is made to empty into the inferior vena cava in order to bypass a damaged liver
Porta Hepatis
Also called Transverse Fissure. The fissure running transversely on the underside of the liver where most of the vessels enter or leave
Communicating part or area of an organism, such as Portal Vein. The point at which something enters the body. Of or relating to the Porta Hepatis
Portal Circulation
Pertaining to the flow of blood through the portal vein
Portal Cirrhosis
Laennec’s Cirrhosis
Portal Hypertension
From fibrosis and regenerative nodules, which disrupt the portal venous blood flow, increased pressure in the blood vessels entering the liver, which often occurs with cirrhosis. Portal hypertension can result in ascites or edema
Portal System
A system of veins that begins and ends in capillaries
Portal System, Hepatic
A group of veins that carry blood from the capillaries of the stomach, spleen, intestine, and pancreas to the sinusoids of the liver
Portal Vein
Large vein through which oxygen-depleted blood from the spleen, intestines, gallbladder, stomach and the pancreas flows to the liver. The principle tributaries to the portal vein are the lienal vein, with blood from the stomach, the greater omentum — a curtain of membrane and fat that hangs down over the intestines, the pancreas, the large intestine and the spleen; the superior mesenteric vein, with blood from the small intestine and part of the large intestine; the pyloric veins, with blood from the stomach; and the cystic veins, with blood from the gallbladder. In the liver the blood from the portal vein flows through a network of microscopic vessels called sinusoids in which the blood is relieved of worn out red cells, bacteria, and other debris and in which nutrients are added to the blood or removed from it for storage. The blood leaves the liver by way of the hepatic veins
Portal Venule
The final branch of the portal venous system that arises from a terminal portal vein or conducting PV, and enters the parenchyma to form a vascular septum. Also called a “septal” PV
Towards or at the back of
Postnecrotic Cirrhosis
Cirrhosis of the liver following widespread necrosis of liver cells especially as a result of hepatitis
Occurring after and especially as a result of hepatitis. Occurring or located behind the liver
Post transfusion Hepatitis
Hepatitis that occurs following a transfusion
Mineral that serves as an electrolyte and is involved in the balance of fluid within the body. Our bodies contain more than twice as much potassium as sodium (typically nine ounces versus four ounces). About 98 percent of total body potassium is inside our cells. The principal cation (positive ion) of the fluid within cells. It is important in controlling the activity of the heart, muscles, nervous system and just about every cell in the body. Also regulates the water balance and acid-base balance in the blood and tissues. Evidence is showing that potassium is also involved in bone calcification. Potassium is a co-factor in many reactions, especially those involving energy production and muscle building. Increase in serum potassium is seen in states characterized by excess destruction of cells, with redistribution of K+ from the intra- to the extracellular compartment, as in massive hemolysis, crush injuries, hyperkinetic activity, and malignant hyperpyrexia. Decreased renal K+ excretion is seen in acute renal failure, some cases of chronic renal failure, Addison’s disease, and other sodium-depleted states. Hyperkalemia due to pure excess of K+ intake is usually iatrogenic. Drugs causing hyperkalemia include amiloride, aminocaproic acid, antineoplastic agents, epinephrine, heparin, histamine, indomethacin, isoniazid, lithium, mannitol, methicillin, potassium salts of penicillin, phenformin, propranolol, salt substitutes, spironolactone, succinylcholine, tetracycline, triamterene, and tromethamine. Spurious hyperkalemia can be seen when a patient exercises his/her arm with the tourniquet in place prior to venipuncture. Hemolysis and marked thrombocytosis may cause false elevations of serum K+ as well. Failure to promptly separate serum from cells in a clot tube is a notorious source of falsely elevated potassium. Decrease in serum potassium is seen usually in states characterized by excess K+ loss, such as in vomiting, diarrhea, villous adenoma of the colorectum, certain renal tubular defects, hypercorticoidism, etc. Redistribution hypokalemia is seen in glucose/insulin therapy, alkalosis (where serum K+ is lost into cells and into urine), and familial periodic paralysis. Drugs causing hypokalemia include amphotericin, carbenicillin, carbenoxolone, corticosteroids, diuretics, licorice, salicylates, and ticarcillin
Potassium Chloride
Potassium is a vital element in the body. Potassium supplements help prevent and treat potassium deficiency in people taking diuretics
Joint action of two drugs
Joint action of two drugs
Soft mass, usually heated then spread on cloth and applied to sores or inflamed areas to relieve pain, supply warmth, or to act as a antiseptic or counterirritant
Pancreatic Polypeptide
Purified Protein Derivative (tuberculin)
Pure Pancreatic Juice
Parts Per Million
Prefix meaning in front of
Unusual changes in body cells that may or may not become cancerous
Before the disease becomes recognizable
Forerunner, Parent Substance
Anti-inflammatory drug used in the treatment of arthritis, asthma, autoimmune hepatitis and given post transplant
Pre-existing Condition
A medical problem that existed before or at the time of a defined date
Before an operation
Presurface Protein 1, Hepatitis B Surface Antigen
226 amino acid product of hepatitis B virus S gene + 163 amino acids; may be important in virion assembly & infectivity
Before a nerve/organ joint
The proportion of the host population infected (or with some marker of past or present infection) at a particular time.
In regard to hepatitis, prevalence relates to the number of cases in the community at any one time. It is usually expressed as a percentage or ratio. eg. 1% of the population, or 1 in 100 people
Prevalence Models
Prevalence models are compartmental models dividing the host population into, for example, susceptible, latent, infectious and immune individuals
Getting rid of or staying away from things or behaviors known to cause diseases
Prickly Ash Bark
Has anti-tubercular properties
Primary Carcinoma of the Liver
Metastatic malignant neoplasm, ususally from breast, lung, or gastrointestinal cancer
Primary Lobule
The cone-shaped zone of parenchyma formed by the sinusoids given off by 2 adjacent portal venules. The primary lobule thus encompasses 2 portal venules, their inlet sinusoids, hepatic arterioles, bile ductules, and canals of Hering
As needed
Prefix meaning before or in front of
Class of compounds found in the family of bioflavonoids
Refers to organisms and substances which contribute to intestinal microbial balance. They are beneficial or “friendly” intestinal bacteria
Inflammation of the rectum lining
Physician who specializes in treating disorders of the anus and rectum
Short, rigid metal tube that can be inserted into the rectum and anus, permitting an internal examination of these organs
Fore running symptoms of infection. Occuring Before
Offspring of animals or plants
Outlook, Prediction of probable outcome or course of a disease; Chance of recovery
Falling down or sinking in. Slipping  or falling of a body part from its usual position
Non-essential amino acid. Helps maintain and strengthen heart muscles, important for the proper functioning of joints and tendons
Sexual activity that is not limited to one partner
Any agent or device that prevents or helps to prevent the development of disease
Prophylactic Medication
Medication that helps prevent disease
Prevention of disease. In Military Medicine–Measures taken to prevent or reduce the harmful effects of chemical agents
Prospective Study
A study in which people are initially enrolled and then followed up at subsequent times
Fatty acid
Prostate Gland
Gland in men that surrounds the neck of the bladder and the urethra and produces a secretion that liquefies coagulated semen
Enzyme that digests proteins. Any enzyme which acts upon the peptide bonds of proteins and peptides; a protein-splitting or hydrolyzing enzyme
Nitrogen rich compounds that are formed from a complex series of amino acids. Fundamental to many of the processes of life, fundamental building blocks for much of the substance of cellular and non-cellular life
Nitrogenous organic compounds, containing more than about 100 amino acid residues, molecular weight 8,000-200,000, in vegetable and animal matter. Proteins yield amino acids on hydrolysis and are foods assimilated as amino acids and reconstructed in the protoplasm
Proteins, Viral
Proteins found in any species of virus
Protein X, Woodchuck Hepatitis Virus
RN refers to strain New York; amino acid sequence has been determined
Property of a substance that breaks down proteins
Having been subjected to proteolysis
Blood factor II
Prothrombin Time
The ratio between the time it takes a test sample of blood to clot after addition of optimal quantities of calcium and the natural clotting stimulator thromboplastin compared with the time for a standard containing a normal quantity of the clotting precursor fibrinogen, which is reduced by the anticoagulant Coumadin
Step by Step procedure that is followed in order to perform a task
Single cell creature
Virus that has become and integral part of the host cell chromosome and is transmitted from one cell generation to another
Nearest to or next to a point of reference
Chronic inflammatory skin disease marked by a general eruption of small, itching, pus-filled bumps
Pyloric Stenosis
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
Combining form signifying false or spurious
Tumor like growth
Pounds per Square Inch
Common chronic, squamous dermatosis, marked by exacerbations and remissions and having a polygenic inheritance pattern. The most distinctive histological findings in well-developed psoriasis are Munro microabscesses and spongiform pustules. It is characterized clinically by the presence of rounded, circumscribed, erythematous, dry, scaling patches of various sizes, covered by grayish white or silvery white, umbilicated, and lamellar scales, which have a predilection for the extensor surfaces, nails, scalp, genitalia, and lumbosacral region. Central clearing and coalescence of the lesions produce a wide variety of clinical configurations, including annular or circinate, discoid or nummular, figurate, and gyrate arrangements. Also called psoriasis vulgaris
Posterior Superior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery
Primary Site Undetermined
Caused by mental factors
Hopelessness and inertia related
The production of physical illness or symptoms by emotional or psychological disturbance, with absent or limited awareness
Mood altering drug
Plantago Psyllium. Helps rid the body of excess cholesterol. Excellent laxative that offers relief from hemorrhoid and gastrointestinal irritations
Percuateous Transhepatic Biliary Dishcharge
Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholangiography
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
Peptic Ulcer
Polyuria and Polydipsia
Peptic Ulcer Disease
Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid
Pulmonary Embolism
Obstruction of blood vessels in the lung,or pulmonary artery by a blood clot or other material
A pulsating artery that gives evidence that the heart is beating, usually about 70 times per minute
Pumpkin Seed
Has the ability to rid the body of intestinal parasites such as roundworms and tapeworms
Spot, point or minute orifice
Strong laxative, Substance that causes vigorous evacuation of the bowels
Cleanse, to get rid of anything undesirable
Blood spots, bruising and discoloring to skin. Bleeding under the skin.
Pusy, containing, consisting of, forming pus, Foul
Portal Vein
Trademark for specific bioflavonoids extracted from pine bark. Reduces inflammation and the pain of arthritis and other conditions, an antioxidant, fighting the corrosive free radicals that damage cells and promote a variety of life-threatening conditions, Stabilizes the vital protein collagen, improving skin and blood vessel health
Used for the treatment of prostatic hypertrophy
Opening from the stomach into the duodenum
Formation of pus
Vitamin B-6. A B-complex vitamin that plays a role as a coenzyme in the breakdown and utilization of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Facilitates the release of glycogen for energy from the liver and muscles. Also participates in the utilization of energy in the brain and nervous tissue and is essential for the regulation of the central nervous system. A deficiency of Pyridoxine may result in anemia, insomnia, nervousness, skin eruptions, loss of hair, loss of muscular control, mouth disorders, muscular weakness, dermatitis, arm & leg cramps, slow learning, and water retention
Pyrogenic, Pyrogen
Fever inducing, capable of producing fever; Of or relating to the production of a fever
Peptide YY

© Vikki Shaw