Glossary of Medical Terms – F | Hepatitis Central

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Glossary of Medical Terms – F

Fat, Fecal
A measurement of temperature commonly used in the U.S.A.  See Fahrenheit
Fatty Acid
A circumstance, fact or influence which usually produces a result. A substance that promotes or functions in a particular physiologic process, such as a coagulation factor
Factor 1
Factor II
Factor III
Factor IV
Calcium when it participates in the coagulation of blood
Factor V
Essential for rapid conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. A procoagulant in normal plasma but deficient in patients with parahemophilia
Factor VI
Hypothetical substance believed to be derived from Factor V during coagulation
Factor VII
May be closely related to prothrombin since are both are formed in the liver by action of vitamin K. Stable procoagulant in normal plasma but deficient in the blood of patients with hereditary bleeding disorder
Factor VIII
Procoagulant present in normal plasma but deficient in the blood of patients with hemophilia A
Factor IX
Procoagulant in normal plasma but deficient in the blood of patients with Hemophilia B
Factor X
Same as Factor VIII
Factor XI
Procoagulant present in normal plasma but deficient in the blood of patients with hereditary bleeding disorders
Factor XII
Factor necessary for rapid coagulation in vitro, apparently not required for hemostasis, present in normal plasma but deficient in the blood of patients with a hereditary bleeding disorder
Factor XIII
Factor present in normal plasma which in the presence of calcium, causes the formation of a highly insoluable fibrin clot resistant to urea or weak acid
Factor D (liver)
A poly (thymidine) template stimulatory protein of DNA polymerases; MW 58kDa
Failure To Thrive
Condition in which an infant does not develop or grow normally
Falciform Ligament
An anteroposterior fold of peritoneum attached to the under surface of the diaphragm and sheath of the rectus muscle and along a line on the anterior and upper surfaces of the liver extending back from the notch on the anterior margin
False Negative
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. A test result that indicates that a person does not have a condition when in fact he or she does.
False Negative Reactions
Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease
Test result that mistakenly gives a postive reading. A test result that indicates that a person has a condition when in fact he or she does not
False Positive Reactions
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease
Familial Polyposis
Rare, inherited disease in which many growths (polyps) occur in the colon. People who have this disease have an extremely high risk of developing colon cancer
A measurement of temperature commonly used in the U.S.A. Normal body temperature is considered to be 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit or 37 degrees Celsius. Body temperature can vary 1/2 to 1 degree Fahrenheit above or below 98.6 F. and still be considered “normal.” Body temperature varies with many factors including level of activity. To convert a Fahrenheit temperature to Celsius use: C = (F – 32) x 5/9. To convert a Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit use: F = (C x 9/5) + 32
Band of fibrous tissue such as lies deep to the skin or forms an investment for muscles and various other organs of the body
United into bundles
Inflammation of a small bundle of muscle or nerve fibers, usually the latter
In histology, a bundle of nerves, muscle or tendon fibers separated by connective tissue; as that of muscle fibers, by perimysium. 2. In neurology, a bundle or tract of nerve fibers presumably having common connections and functions
Fasciola Hepatica
Common liver fluke of sheep, oxen, goats, horses, and other herbivorous animals.Occasionally found in the human liver, where it may cause dangerous symptoms by obstructing the biliary passages and by invasion of the liver parenchyma. Several snails of the genus Lymnaea act as invertebrate hosts. Also called Distoma Hepaticum
Infection with Fasciola hepatica or F. gigantea
To abstain from all or some foods
One of the three nutrients that supply calories to our bodies. Fat provides 9 calories per gram, more than twice the number provided by protein or carbohydrates. Along with providing calories, fat helps in absorption of certain vitamins. Small amounts of fat are necessary to keep our bodies functioning normally
Slightly unsaturated fat that is found in the greatest amounts in foods from plants, including canola and olive oil. When it is substituted for saturated fat, monounsaturated fat may help reduce blood cholesterol
Sum of the saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats present in food. Mixture of all three are found in varying amounts in most foods
Marked by an abnormal deposit of fat
Fatty Acid
Any of a large group of organic acids made up of molecules containing a carboxyl group at the end of a long hydrocarbon chain; the carbon content may vary from C2 to C34
Fatty Liver
Yellow discoloration of the liver due to fatty degeneration of liver parenchymal cells
Fatty Liver, Alcoholic
Fatty liver in alcoholics. It is potentially reversible and may be associated with alcoholic hepatitis or cirrhosis. One affected with fatty infiltration, usually from alcohol abuse, jejunoileal bypass surgery, or occasionally diabetes mellitus; fat is in large droplets and the liver is enlarged but of normal consistency; patients are often asymptomatic but the condition can progress to hepatitis or cirrhosis if the underlying cause is not removed
FDA–Food and Drug Adminstration
Federal organization that establishes the safety and effectiveness guidelines & rules for drugs & healthcare products
Substance that reduces or prevents fever; antipyretic
Fecal-Oral Route
Route of transmission which is dependant on the ingestion of fecal matter. Common mode of transmission for Hepatitis types A and E
Solid body wastes, passed as bowel movements
A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (piroxicam) prescribed for arthritis and other forms of joint and bone inflammation
Femoral Artery
The major artery in the thigh
Used to aid digestion, help expel gas. It relaxes muscles in the digestive and reproductive systems.  Also used to increase mothers’ milk production and promote menstruation. Because of its estrogenic effect, pregnant women should avoid medicinal amounts of the herb
A short-acting morphine like narcotic analgesic of high poitency, often used in conjunction with other drugs. Fentanyl can enhance the effect of certain narcotics (including morphine)
Trigonella foenum-graecum. Member of the family Fabaceae, may be referred to as trigonella or as Greek hay seed. Has been administered internally for stomach problems, due to its soothing properties. The seed tastes similar to maple sugar and is sometimes used as a spice and flavoring agent, often in imitation maple syrup. Can also be taken for bronchitis or fevers and gargled for sore throat. Make a poultice of pulverized seeds for fistulas, furuncles, gouty pains, neuralgia, sciatica, sores, swollen glands, wounds, tumors, and skin irritations. May be a good agent for reducing serum cholesterol
Process by which bacteria break down substances, yielding alcohols, gases and acids. In the colon, bacteria break down undigested bits of food, releasing carbon dioxide and hydrogen
Pertaining to a compound of iron in which the metal is trivalent
A crystalline iron containing protein that functions in the storage of iron and is found especially in the liver and spleen. Iron is stored in the liver in the form of Ferritin. Increased levels of Ferritin means there is a high iron storage. This could result from an increased iron intake in the diet (vitamin supplements, food cooked in iron pots, etc.). An elevation can also occur from a destruction of liver cells causing leakage of Ferritin
Pertaining to a compound of iron in which the metal is divalent
Fetal proteins found in small amounts in adults in various forms. Serum alpha-fetoprotein is used as a marker for HCC
Fetor Hepaticus
A characteristically disagreeable odor to the breath that is a sign of liver failure
Abnormally high body temperature. A rise in body temperature above normal usually as a natural response to infection. Typically an oral temperature greater than 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit constitutes a fever
Tanacetum Parthenium. Also known as Bachelor’s Button. Ancient Greeks and Egyptians cherished feverfew as a valuable herbal remedy due to its anti-inflammatory effects. Feverfew has become tremendously popular for its ability to reduce prostaglandins and histamines, thereby reducing spasms of blood vessels . Used to alleviate headaches, joint pain, stomach aches, fever, and menstrual pains. Feverfew has also been useful in relaxing smooth muscles in the uterus, promoting menstrual flow and inhibiting platelet aggregation and excessive blood clotting. Feverfew also helps stimulate digestion and improves liver function
Fat Free
Formalin Fixed, Paraffin Embedded
Nondigestible type of complex carbohydrate. High-fiber foods are usually low in calories. Foods high in fiber include whole fruits, dried beans, whole grain breads and cereals. Types of fiber found in foods such as oat and barley bran, some fruits like apples and oranges, and some dried beans may help reduce blood cholesterol
Fiber Optics
Technology that uses bundles of  plastic fibers or glass to transmit light and/or images; used widely in flexible viewing instruments such as an endoscope to allow a physician to see an organ
Uncoordinated twitching of individual muscular fibers with little or no movement of the muscle as a whole. Fine, rapid fibrillar movements the replace the normal contraction of the ventricular muscle of the heart
Blood clotting protein
A plasma protein that is produced in the liver and is converted into fibrin during blood clot formation
Scar formation resulting from the repair of tissue damage. If it occurs extensively in the liver, it is called cirrhosis, Formation of fibrous tissue; fibroid or fibrous degeneration. Condition marked by increase of interstitial fibrous tissue, fibrous degeneration
Characterized by or affected with fibrosis
Thread like virus family which includes such viruses as Ebola and Marburg. This is a very deadly virus
First Generation Hepatitis C Antibody Tests
These were the first tests developed (in 1990) to detect hepatitis C antibodies – our body’s response to the virus. The test searches for a limited number of ‘signs’ of the antibody, such as the way its shell or envelope is made. These tests have been superseded by newer generation tests with improved sensitivity and specificity
Fish Oils
Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the livers. Those from the liver are usually high in vitamin A. The oils are used as dietary supplements, in soaps and detergents, as protective coatings, and as a base for other food products such as vegetable shortenings
Small cleft
Any of several clefts separating the lobes of the liver. A break or slit in tissue usu. at the junction of skin and mucous membrane. Groove, deep crack
Abnormal passage, passage or tunnel formed in the body by injury, disease, congenital abnormalities, or, occasionally, surgery. An abnormal, tube-like passage from a hollow organ to the surface, or from one organ to another
Familial Juvenile Polyposis
Fatty Liver, Full Liquid (diet)
Weak, lax or soft
Excessive gas in the digestive tract
Gas generated in the stomach or intestines
Group of related viruses. This virus includes Hepatitis C, Yellow Fever, Denge and St. Louis Encephalitis
Any of a group of plant pigments found in many foods that are thought to help protect the body from cancer
Used effectively for treating  colon problems, female disorders, tumors and inflammation. Flaxseed oil promotes bones, strong nails, healthy skin and teeth.
Fatty Liver Cell
Potent muscle relaxant
Bent portion of a structure or organ
Fatty Liver and Kidney Syndrome
Floating Liver
Wandering liver
Having downy or flaky shreds
Having downy or flaky shreds
Not remaining at one level
Flu-Like Symptoms
Symptoms that are generally associated with the flu (influenza). Symptoms generally are: Fever, muscle ache, nausea & joint pain
X-ray machine that makes it possible to see internal organs in motion
Fine Needle Aspiration
Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy
Fine Needle Biopsy
Fine Needle Transhepatic Cholangiography
Foamy Liver
A liver seen post mortem, marked by the presence of numerous gas bubbles
Fecal Occult Blood Test
Focal Liver Disease
Abscess, neoplastic infiltration, partial bile duct obstruction
A foley (indwelling) catheter. This is a thin flexible tube inserted into the urethra in order to drain the bladder
Folic Acid
A B-complex vitamin that functions along with vitamin B-12 and vitamin C in the utilization of proteins. Essential role in the formation of heme (the iron containing protein in hemoglobin necessary for the formation of red blood cells). Folic acid is essential during pregnancy to prevent neural tubular defects in the developing fetus. Necessary for DNA & RNA synthesis which is necessary for the proper growth and reproduction of all body cells. Aids in amino acid metabolism. A deficieny of Folic Acid may result in anemia, gastrointestinal disorders, Vitamin B-12 deficiency, and/or premature gray hair
Checking the results periodically after treatment has been prescribed
Application of heat and moisture to the body to ease pain or reduce inflammation
Force of infection
The per capita rate at which susceptibles are infected
Forensic Pathology
A forensic pathologist is expert in investigating and evaluating cases of sudden, unexpected, suspicious, and violent dealth as well as other specific classes of death defined by law. The forensic pathologist serves the public as coroner or medical examiner or by performing medicolegal autopsies for such officials
Coleus Forskohili–Potent bronchodilator, used to treat imbalances resulting in asthma and other lung disorders. Has been shown to relieve internal eye pressure. Effects of Forskolin last for only a short period, it may lead to possible cardiovascular complications. Should be used under the supervision of a competent healthcare professional trained in its use
An anatomical pit, groove, or depression. i.e., the fossa in the liver for the gallbladder
Polygonum Multiflorum–A tonic to increase energy, purify the blood and tone the kidneys and liver . Also used as a remedy for insomnia, stomach upset, and diabetes. Used effectively for coronary disease, coronary disease, excessive sweating, elevated serum cholesterol, insomnia, neurasthenia, pain, backache, tuberculous adenopathy and weakness. Fo-Ti has anti-swelling, anti-toxic, and tranquilizing properties
Food Poisoning
Free Radical
Atom or molecule produced as a by-product of oxidation (the cellular process of burning fuel) that bears an unpaired electron and is potentially harmful to the body. Free radicals are neutralized in the body by antioxidants. In the body, free radicals are generated by both enzymatic and chemical reactions, including the metabolism of fats. Free radicals are believed to be involved in extensive damage to the body, including aging cancer, heart disease and arthritis
Breaks apart or crumbles easily
Fringetree Bark
Considered a specific for the treatment of gallbladder inflammation, and is valuable in treating gallstones. It will aid the liver in general, often used as part of a wider treatment for the whole body. Through its action of releasing bile, Fringetree Bark acts as a gentle and effective laxative. Used in the treatment of Duodenal catarrh, catarrhal jaundice, gall stones and hepatic torpor, alimentary glycosuria, Pancreatic disease, glandular disorders, chronic disease of liver and spleen. May be safely used in all liver problems, especially when they have developed into jaundice
Frosted Liver
Perihepatitis chronica hyperplastica
Frozen Section-Biopsy
Urgent histological examination of a biopsy undertaken during surgery, for determining the diagnosis and consequently the appropriate surgical procedure
Foot, feet (measure)
This is a convenient parameter with mathematically accounts for the reciprocal effects of T4 and T3 uptake to give a single figure which correlates with free T4. Therefore, increased FTI is seen in hyperthyroidism, and with decreased FTI is seen in hypothyroidism. Early cases of hyperthyroidism may be expressed only by increased thyroid stimulation hormone (TSH) with normal FTI. Early cases of hypothyroidism may be expressed only by increased TSH with normal FTI.
Full Thickness Local Excision
Rapid, intense and severe
Fulminant Hepatitis
A severe form of hepatitis involving death of liver cells and often liver failure
Functional Disorder
Disorder in which there are no visible signs of disease, yet sometimes the intestinal tract does not seem to function properly. This kind of disorder can cause discomfort but is not life threatening and does not lead to serious disease
Functional Food
Foods that offer proven health benefits and medicinal properties and contain phytochemicals in their unadulterated states
Mobilization of the lower end of the esophagus and plication of the fundus of the stomach around it (fundic wrapping) in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux (See GERD) that may be associated with various disorders, such as hiatal hernia
The bottom or base of any hollow organ; as, the fundus of the stomach; the fundus of the eye
Any of a group of parasitic lower organisms, including molds and yeasts, that can infect tissues in the human body
Fever of Unknown Origin
Fusion Protein
The protein(s) on the surface of a virus particle responsible for fusion of the virus envelope with cellular membranes

© Vikki Shaw